1Opening Administration to the Public


Citizens of Bengbu City, Anhui Province, now have the opportunit y to be a visitor at municipal government meetings, thanks to the gov ernment’s recent efforts to open its administration-adopting the Mea sures for Inviting Citizens to Listen to the Administrative Meeting, which came into effect on December 16, 2001.得益于2001年11月16日生效的政府最近实施的邀请市民旁听政府会议的行政事务公开改革措施,安徽省蚌埠市的市民现在有机会参加市政府会议。

Ten citizens are invited to be present at each meeting on admini strative affairs. The number of citizen listeners invited to very imp ortant meeting can vary. The listeners can be deputies to the city’s people’s congress, members of the local committee of the Chinese Peo ple’s Political Consultative Conference, personages of democratic, m embers of the Association of Industry and Commerce and others. They m ust be at least 18 years of age, and willingly to be a visitor at the meeting.每次行政事务会议邀请10名市民参加。邀请参加重要会议的人数是可以变化的。这些旁听者可以是人大代表、政协委员、民主党派的要员、工商联代表及其他。他们要至少18岁,并且愿意参加会议。

Listeners can air their opinions through the government office i n a written form.旁听者可以通过政府部门以书面形式发表他们的意见。Increasing Transparency增加透明度

On the basis of pilot project carried out in some cities and cou ntries, Guangdong Province has asked its governments at or above coun try level to open their administrative affairs during the first half of this year.在部分城市和农村的基础上,今年的上半年,广东省已要求村及村以上的政府行政事务都要公开。

All affairs relating to laws and regulations and to administrati ve decisions that people must follow, as long as they do not involve secrets of the Party or the Central Government, should be open to the public, Contents are as follows:所有有关法律、规章和公民必须遵循的政府决定,只要不涉及政党和中央政府的机密,都要向公众公开。具体内容如下:-Strategy of social and economic development, work targets and t heir accomplishments;经济社会发展战略,工作目标和它们的完成情况;

-Process for making big decisions and policies;重大决策和政策的主动过程;

-Financial budgets and implementation;财政预算和执行情况;

-Distribution and use of special funds and purchase of important materials;专用基金的分配和重要物资的购买;

-Major capital construction projects and their bidding;主要基本建设计划和它们的招投标;

-Items of public welfare invested by the government;政府投资的公共福利项目;

-Projects examined and approved by the government and their acco mplishments;政府审批的项目及完成情况;

-The accomplishments of work the government promised to do for t he public;政府向公众承事项的完成情况;

-Law enforcement in relation to the interests and rights of citi zens, legal persons and organizations;有关公民、法人、组织权益的法律实施;

-Handing of major incidents;重大事件的处理;

-Selecting and appointing officials, employing public servants a nd appraising of model workers, transferring workers and staff member s in institutional reforms and other issues of public concern;官员的选拔任用,公务员的录用,先进工作者的评价,员工调动的原则改革及公众关心的其他问题;

-Administrative functions and the official duties;政府机构的职能和官员的职责;

-Working content, conditions, procedures and timetable as well a s the result;工作内容、条件、流程和时间以及工作效果;

-Working principles, commitment and the way to sue promise-breac hing activities, as well as investigation results of the cases.工作原则,承担义务、对违反应承担义务的起诉方法及调查结果;

Apart from opening administrative affairs to society, various de partments of the Guangdong Provincial Government have been required t o open their internal system construction, work operations and manage ment, specifically the self-discipline of officials; income and expen diture of the department; management of the human resources, distribu tion of income to workers and staff members as well as their welfare treatment; and other issues.除了向社会公开行政事务,广东省已经要求各政府部门公开机关内部结构,工作运转方式和管理情况,特别是官员的自律情况;部门的收入和经费开支情况,工作人员的收入分配和他们的福利待遇,以及其它事项。

Knowing government administration is one of people’s fundamenta l rights, and the opening of administrative information has become an indispensable part in the government’s administration. In the meant ime, opening government administration is also a main principle of th e WTO, listed on most of its documents. After China’s entry into the WTO, it was required to be better in this field. China’s transformat

ion of government functions lags behind that of its economic growth.了解政府的行政行为是公民基本权力之一,政务公开是政府的应尽的职责。公开行政信息是已经是政府管理中必不可少的部分。同时,政务公开也是WTO的一项主要原则,被列在WTO的大部分文件中。在中国加入WTO后,被要求在这方面做得更好。中国的政府职能转变落后于它的经济增长。

A fresh move the opening of government administration still need s improvement. Experts appealed to the state to place great importanc e on the issue by setting up special department to handle related aff airs, and devising a law on opening government administrations.政务公开作为一项新举措仍需要改进。专家希望政府将其放在更重要位置,通过设置处理相关事务的专门部门,对政务公开进行立法。

Red-Title Document Open to the Public对公众公开红头文件

At the end of last year, the Beijing municipal government, locat ed on Zhengyilu Road, placed a reception desk at the entrance of its west gate from Monday to Friday to receive citizens who come to the B eijing Municipal Government Bulletin. Since the bulletin opened to th e public in early 2002, the telephone at the editorial office has kep t ringing. Many of the calls come from Guangdong, Zhejiang, Heilongji ang provinces and Hong Kong SAR, inquiring about subscription procedu res.在去年底,位于遵义路上的北京市政府,每周一到周五在其西大门入口处放置接待桌以接受市民来征订《北京市政府公告》。早在2002年政府公告向公众公开后,编辑部的电话就一直响着。许多电话来自广东、浙江、黑龙江和香港特区,来咨询征订程序。

The bulletin, which contains government regulations, administrat ive orders and decisions, is popularly known as a “red-title documen t” and is a mystery to most people, because it only reached leaders above bureau level in the past.包括政府规章、行政命令和决定的公文过去常称为红头文件,对大多数人而言是神秘的,因为它过去只发到局级以上干部。

Wei Guiqin, director of the Beijing Huiyuan Law Office, is among the first to subscribe to the bulletin. “The public distribution of the bulletin helps us a lot in our job,” he said.魏贵勤,北京惠元律师事务所所长,是第一批来征订公告的。他说:“公告的公开发行对我们的工作帮助很大。”

The government of many other provinces and cities have also open ed their bulletins to the public, including Henan and Shanxi province s, and cities such as Guangzhou, Wuhan, Qingdao and Yinchuan. The gov ernment of the bulletins are functionally the same as other official documents.许多别的省市也已经向公众公布了公告,如河南、陕西,城市如广州、武汉、青岛和银川。政府公告与其它官方文件功能上是一样的。

Shanghai was the first city to open its bulletin to the public. Since the beginning of last year, the bulletins have been sent not on ly to major institutions and enterprises under the jurisdiction of th e municipal government, but also to 100 selected newspaper and magazi

ne booths, 50 postal zones 50 Xinhua bookstores, where citizens can g et them for free. The bulletins have attracted the attention of many people, most of whom are lawyers and accountants.上海是第一个向公众公布了公告的城市。自去年初,公告不仅通过市政府正常渠道发送到主要公共机构和企业,还发送到经挑选产生的100个报刊亭、50个邮政亭、50个新华书店,在那里市民可以免费取得公告。公告已经引起许多公民的注意,其中大部分是律师和会计。

“Supermarket" of administrative Affairs政务超市

Five years ago, Huang Songji, a laid-off female employee in Nanj ing, invesred 50000 yuan to set up a kindergarten. However, she was s oon asked to close down, as she failed to follow relevant procedures. She sought assistance at the Supermarket of Administrative Affairs, and with guidance by the staff, Huang quickly obtained all necessary procedures.五年前,黄松基,南京一名下岗女工,投资5 万元办了一个育儿园。然而,她很快被勒令关门,因为她没有履行相关手续。她在政务超市寻求帮助,在工作人员的帮助下,她很快办理了所有手续。

What is the Supermarket of Administrative Affairs and how effect ive is it?什么是政务超市?它的效果如何?

The first supermarket was launched by the government of Xiaguan District, Nanjing City, in the residential communities of Xiaoshi and Rehenanlu on October 16, 2000. the government set up its offices in a big hall to handle various administrative affairs, including more t han 40 services related to civil affairs, employment, municipal const ruction, economy, handing of complaints and law enforcement. It indee d has supermarket features of openness, efficiency and a variety of c hoice, hence the name, Supermarket of Administrative Affairs. Five ot her of residential quarters followed suit a year later.第一个政务超市是2000年10月16日在南京下关区热河南路的小石居委会建立的。政府在一个大厅设置办公场所以解决多种行政事务,包括种有关民政事务、劳动就业、市政建设、经济、投诉的处理和法律实施。它的确具有超市的开放、效率和多样化选择的特质,因此被称为政务超市。一年后另五个居民区的政务超市随之成立。

The supermarket practices a responsibility system to solve probl ems, and serve clients. In addition, supervision and feedback procedu res have also been adopted. The system, which enables citizens to lea rn about government administrative affairs, contributes to the govern ment’s effort to open administrative affairs. Sun Wei, a “supermark et” staff member, said that in the past, policies were locked in the office drawer. Now they are placed on the wall, clearly indicating pr oblems and possible timelines for their solution. Furthermore, the te lephone number to contact in cases of complaint against the behavior of “supermarket” employees is also available to the public. Employe es subject to customer complaints are given three chances, and penalt ies include criticism the first time, bonus deduotion the second time,

and dismissal the third time.政务超市提供了一个解决问题、服务委托人的负责任的系统。另外,监督和反馈程序已经被采用。这个能够使公众了解政府行政事务的系统,归功于政府的政务公开。孙伟,一名“政务超市”的工作人员说,在过去政策是被锁在办公室的抽屉里。现在是挂在墙上,清楚地标明问题和解决这些问题的时间。更重要的是,针对政务超市工作人员的投诉电话是向公众公开的。工作人员有三次被客户投诉的机会,处罚包括第一次批评,第二次扣奖金,第三次解雇。

Since district government powers have been transferred to the “s upermarket”, the service items are wider than those formerly offered by the residential community, such as the approval of small loans to help the poor and victims of natural disasters; handling applications for subsidies if their living standards is below the poverty line; g ranting licenses to small restaurants; leasing newspaper booths and r egistering the unemployed. Apart from these services, the “supermark et” has also set up a training room, a law consultation room and a s uggestion box, as well as a telephone hotline to answer questions. In addition, government leaders regularly visit the “supermarket” to interact with the public in person.自从地方行政权力转到“超市”,服务项目比过去居委会提供的范围更大了,如对贫困户和突发自然灾害的小额贷款的审批,受理低保补助申请,小酒店许可证的核发,报刊摊位的出租和失业登记。除了这些服务,“超市”还提供一个服务间,一个咨询室和意见箱,一部回答问题的热线电话。另外,政府领导定期到“超市”同公众面对面交流。

Many citizens have expressed their satisfaction with the “super market”.许多市民对“超市”表示满意。

“It quickly solves problems, and shortens the psychological di stance between leaders and the masses. Surveys recently conducted in five ‘supermarkets’ indicated that citizens are satisfied with meas ures,” said Xu Xuwqin, who is in charge of the publicity of the Xiag uan residential community.“它很快解决问题,缩短了领导和群众之间的心理距离。对五个“超市”的调查表明群众对这些措施是满意的”许学琴,一名居委会宣传部门负责人说。

The “supermarket” of administrative service in Nanjing has exert ed a positive influence to the entire country. Similar supermarkets h ave opened in Shenyang, Shanghai and Fuzhou.南京这种行政服务“超市”已经在整个国家产生了正面的影响。在沈阳、上海和福州都建了类似的超市。

The “supermarket” in Shanghai, known as the Center of Residentia l Affairs, now has 80 branches in the entire city, offering more than 50 services. A civil affairs official said that in the next three ye ars, every community and town would set up such as a “supermarket”to form a network covering the entire area.上海的“超市”,作为居民事


Media reports recently stated that relevant departments have pla nned to set up a multi-functional and multi-level service system thro ughout the country, which offers services on personnel matters, domic ile registration, matrimonial registration, enterprise registration, tax payment, license distribution and the approval of land utilizatio n. Service centers and related ranches will be set up in densely popu lated communities. Meanwhile, a standardized service network and unif ied regulations will also be established, and related workers will we ar name tags for the benefit of customers.媒体报道,有关部门已经计划在全国建设多功能、多层次的服务体系,以提供人事事务、居民登记、婚姻注册、企业登记交税、许可证的分配和土地使用权的审批。服务中心和有关的分支机构将被建在人口密集的社区。同时,标准的服务网络和统一的制度也将建立,相关工作都将在为将在为顾客的目标下进行。


Placing government administrative affairs on the Internet appear s to be a growing world trend for government working toward open admi nistration. Resources on government work available on the Internet ca n be effectively utilized. Furthermore, this practice will enhance th e transparency if the government, reduce administrative expense, impr ove work efficiency and facilitate the construction of a diligent and honest government.将政府的行政事务在互联网上公布越来越成为世界上政府向公众公开事务的一种倾向。研究表明,提供在互联网的政府工作是被有效利用的。更重要的是,这个实践将提高政府的透明度,降低行政费用,提高工作效率并更利于数字政府和诚信政府的建设。

China has a long way to go before it can develop an online gover nment. However, beginning in the mid-1980s when China first called fo r office automation, up until 1998 when China began to develop e-gove rnment project, it has promoted e-commerce in government departments, using the Internet to release information, handling day-to-day offic e business and offering other services.中国在发展在线政府还有很长的路要走。然而,自80年代中期中国首先提出办公自动化到1998年开始发展电子政府项目,它已经促进政府部门的网上交流,日常办公事务的处理和提供其他帮助。

In recent years, China has rapidly developed the e-commerce deve lopment and implementation. Second, many government web sites with in creasingly rich content and sophisticated functions have appeared. A recent survey stated that more than 2200 government web sites current ly exist in the entire country, and have played a major role in drivi ng the construction of information industry.近年来,中国加快电子政府


A bilingual web site, Chinashanghai, in both English and Chinese, was launched on September 28, 2001. it serves as a platform for gove rnment information dissemination for the benefit the citizens.“中国上海”,一个英汉双语网站,在2001年9月28日建成。它为市民提供政府信息传播服务平台。

Chinashanghai is devoted to the establishment of an “e-governme nt.” Its home page, entitled Today’s Event, provides information on major activities and events, and reports on various hot topics of dis cussion. Pages containing government bulletins, government documents, regulations and other information have also been released. The Law a nd Regulations page introduces various rules and regulations, the Sha nghai Brief page provides information on the least development trends in the city, and the Investment page offers information on the inves tment environment and various investment policies, explaining the urb an construction plan, the development of the Pudong New Area, the dev elopment of development zones and investment projects. The Services p age, on the other hand, provides information on topics more closely r elated to people’s lives, such as weather, transport, healthcare, ed ucation and tourism. This page also offers legal assistance to disadv antaged groups. The Business Guidance page provides useful informatio n on competent institutions, as well as their addresses, contact deta ils, procedures for handling certain affairs, and channels for dealin g with lawsuits. Finally, the Handling Affairs Online page enables us ers to inquire on certain items, and download online forms and applic ations.“中国上海”致力于电子政府的创建。它的主页标有今日大事,提供主要活动和事件的信息,多种热点讨论话题的报道。页面包括政府公告,政府公文、规章和其它已公布的信息。法律规章的页面介绍了多种规章制度,网站的首页提供了城市最新发展趋势,投资页面提供投资环境信息和各种投资政策,说明城市建设规划、浦东新区的发展、开发区的发展和投资项目。另一方面,服务页面提供诸如天气、交通、保健、教育和旅游等更贴近百姓生活的内容。这一页也对弱势群体提供法律救助。商务导航页面提供有法定资格协会有用信息,如地址、联系方式、具体事务处理的程序、诉讼的渠道。最后,在线事务处理使用户能够咨询具体事务,在线下载表格和申请。

Chinashanghai will also connect with its affiliated stations to establish a better government network by the end of this year. In add ition, Shanghai plans to set up a large portal within the next five y ears, which will be among China’s first-class ones and match interna tional advanced level. By the end of the 10th Five-Year Plan period (2 001-2005), all the government departments related to social managemen

t and services will be on the network.到今年底,“中国上海”也将增加联网的附属站点以更好实现政府网络工作。另外,上海计划在下一个五年建立一个在中国处于一流、达到世界水平的大型门户网站。至第十个五年计划期末,所有的与社会管理和服务的政府部门都要实现网上工作。

Open Urban Planning公开城市建设规划

Over the past two years, Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin have mad e public their city construction plan, a change from their former clo sed-door working style. The procedures and timetable for the examinat ion and approval of projects, regulations and laws, and technological indexes in relation to the projects are now also out in the open, mu ch to the great enthusiasm of the citizens.过去两年间,北京,上海和天津已经公布了他们的城市建设规划,这和以前的关门工作是个改变。项目申报审批的程序和时间、规章制度、项目相关的技术流程标准现在都公开,更多是广大热心的市民。

Last October, Beijing held an exhibition on the overall city pla nning. During holidays and weekends, the 3000-square0meter hall recei ved about 1500 people each day. “We have not expected so many citize ns to be so interested in city planning,” said Qiu Yue, a member of the Beijing Municipal City Planning Committee.去年10月,北京举行了城市整体建设规划展览会。在节假日和周日,平方米的展览厅每天接待1500名来访者。“我们没有想到有这么多市民对城市建设规划感兴趣。”邱越,北京市城市规划委员会的工作人员说。

Many visitors filled thick suggestion books with feedback, provi ding constructive ideas, such as building another world trade center in the north; retaining the lay-out of the narrow alleys and the cour tyard homes; and informing citizens on city construction projects on time. The exhibition organizers then sorted the suggestions and deliv ered them to the decision-making department.许多来访者写了厚厚的建议,提出了建设性的建议,如在北部建设另一个世界贸易中心,及时将城市建设项目通知市民。随后,展览会的组织者整理了这些建议,将它们提供给了决策部门。

“Beijing city planning to the public shows the government’s d etermination to promote the opening up of administration affairs, and this is a significant development,” said a visitor.“将北京城市建设规划向公众展示表明了政府在促进行政事务开放的决心,这是一个有重要意义的进步”以名来访者说。

Zhou Chang, Secretary general of the China Architectural Society, agreed. “The opening up of the urban planning process can improve t hings greatly, as major decisions will go through the approval of exp erts, the suggestions of citizens and the supervision of the media,”said Zhou.周畅,中国建筑协会秘书长同意这种观点。他说“城市规划的公开程序会使极大促进规划工作,因为决策要经过专家的审核、市民的建议和舆论的监督”

Shan Qixiang, director of the Beijing Municipal City Planning Co mmittee, said the opinions of the both experts and the masses will be pooled together before a decision on any important plans for urban c onstruction are reached.单启祥,北京市城市规划委员会主任说在任何重要城市建设计划做出之前所有专家和群众的意见都将会被集中起来。

Administrative affairs 行政事务

Financial budget 财政预算

Domicile registration 居民登记

Matrimonial registration 婚姻登记

Handling Affairs Online 在线事务办理
























入门。在富裕和贫穷国家之间的数字信息系统—接收信息和通信技术的鸿沟仍然很大,高收入经济国家每一千人里有 416人拥有自己的计算机,低收入经济国家每一千人里只有6个人拥有自己的计算机。即使这样,在发展中国家和高收入经济国家一样,拥有私人的计算机数正以两倍的速度快速发展。巨大的鸿沟在发展中国家地区仍然存在,欧洲和中亚的发展中国家大约每一千人拥有52台属于自己的计算机,但在南亚只有大约每一千人拥有5台属于自己的计算机。

第五章 What Is Community?


Communities are natural human associations based on ties of rela tionship and shared experiences in which we mutually meaning in our l ives, meet needs, and accomplish the persons we were meant to become, discover meaning, generate ethical values, and develop a culture a c ulture which would be impossible for single, isolated individuals to accomplish alone.社区是基于各种相互联系和共同经历而形成的自然的人类组织.在社区里,我们的生活互相影响,包括如何满足需要,如何成为我们理想中的人,意义的发现,伦理价值的产生,以及开创一种文化.这种文化对于单独的,孤立的个体来说是不可能创造的.

When we talk about community, we talk about two things simultane ously. Community is located in space and time and it exists beyond sp ace and time. Community is embodied in a space, structure, and presen ce, but community transcends location; it cannot confined by structur e or mere history.当我们谈论社区时,我们同时谈论两个方面。社区处于时空中,但它能超越时空而存在。社区体现为一定的空间,结构和现在,但它又超越了地点,并且不可能被仅仅局限于某种结构或历史。

Embodied Community社区的具体性

Every one of us needs community. Community arises spontaneously because of an innate sociality of the human condition. With relativel y rare exceptions community has been the form of human associated lif e by which people have related throughout history. Your self cannot, in fact, reach its full realization in isolation, but only as you are nurtured, guided, and suffused with life of the community in which y ou exist.我们每一个人都需要社区。由于人类所固有的社会性,社区就自然的产生了。除了相对罕见的特例,社区是与人类有关的生活方式,通过这种方式人们


Localized community needs to be embodied to have existence. In i ts purest sense, community is an arena of social interaction, a milie u of social relationships in which we engage one another at a time an d in a place where we gather together. For many communities to have p ermanence, they often become identified with physical space that the community claims as its own. This could be a territory or a neighborh ood that we identify with a name and includes homes, schools, and sho ps. Communities such as a local church, neighborhood, or ethnic or ci vil association often develop a structure or a form of association, i nfuse it with values, and derive meaning form it. The location or the structure becomes the embodiment of and symbolizes community. Thus i t is appropriate to talk about community as a neighborhood or associa tion that exists in space and time, that has permanence and structure.区域化的社区需要被实现才能存在。在最基本的定义里,社区是社会交际的舞台,是我们在某时或聚集在某地而形成的各种社会关系的环境.对许多能够持久的社区来说,它们通常因为拥有自己的地理范围而被人们所确认.这个地理范围可以是国家的领土,也可以是包括家庭、学校和商店的有自己名称的居民区. 诸如地方教会、居民区以及种族或市民协会的这样一个社区,经常会形成一个有着自己的价值观及相关意义系统的社区结构.社区就是通过所划分的地理范围的和所形成的社区结构来具体得到实现的.因此,把社区作为某居民区或协会来谈论是适当的,因为它们有固定结构和永久性,在时空中具体存在.

Transcendent Community社区的超越性

Although a community can be found in a locality or be embodied b y a structural form, community is never simple a static physical loca tion that we inhabit, as social ecologists assert; nor is it merely a structure or mechanical process, as systems theorists suggest. Commu nity is the act by which we engage one another, experience relationsh ips, and become a people. Wherever humans exist, we spontaneously see k and form community.虽然社区有一定地理范围或结构形式,但社区决不仅仅象社会生态学家所断言的那样,"是一个我们所居住的静止不变的地理区域",也不仅仅是系统理论家所提出的"一个结构或机械的过程".社区是一种行为,通过这个行为我们互相交往,体验关系,并且成为一个民族。只要是有人类存在的地方,我们就会自发地寻找并形成社区。

Communities are an indelible component of the human condition, n ot relative to a particular historical era, place, or time. Neither a re communities unique to one race, national, or cultural group. Commu nity transcends history and cannot be contained by mere history. Deep ly tooted in our nature, community may be said to be a universal huma n phenomenon, not contingent on circumstances.社区是人类环境的一个不可或缺的组成部分.它并不是相对于特定的历史时代、地点或时间来说的,也不是


Community transcends location. As people in community move from place to place, we carry our community with us. When the nation of Is rael was destroyed and most of her people were exiled to Babylon in 5 97 B.C. , they lost their land, but they never lost themselves, their community. They were then, and 2600 years later remain a people, a c ommunity, regardless of where they are located.社区超越地点。当社区内的人们迁移时,社区也随之迁移。公元前597年,当以色列人的国家被摧毁,并且大多数人被放逐到巴比伦时,他们丧失了他们的土地,但他们未曾丧失自己以及他们的社区。不管他们生存在哪里.他们那时是,并且2600年后依然是一个民族和社区.

Community transcends its structure. The original group that call ed themselves “people of the Way” was a small association whose mem bers met in the Temple as Jerusalem, in one another’s homes, and who owned everything in common. Christian churches today are far differen t from those original communities in the way they are structures and governed, and in the manner and language in which worship is conducte d. Yet they remain communities untied in a common belief and heritage.社区超越它的结构。最初,一个自称为“路上的人们”的小组是一个很小的协会,这个协会的成员共享一切,在耶路撒冷的圣殿或彼此的家里祭拜上帝. 现在的基督教会在结构和管理上以及祭拜的方式和语言上,与那些原始的社区远远不同。然而,他们仍然是同一个有着相同信仰和传统的松散的社区。

Community transcends time, a community exists before we were bor n and will live on after we die. We develop a shared memory and obtai n a sense of ourselves by means of our common history together. The s ymbols and meaning that community incorporates, while origination in time, become timeless.社区超越时间。一个社区在我们出生前就存在,并且会延续到我们死去之后。我们通过共同的历史来形成共同的记忆以及自我意识。社区所包含的象征和意义,虽然起源于时间,但会变得永恒。

There is not just one model of community or one community ideal. Each community is a unique blending of the people of which it is com posed. The many good communities that come into being add to the shap e and texture of human existence. The more communities that develop, therefore, the more opportunities for us to explore alternative ways of being in the world, and different ways of achieving richness of ch aracter.社区并非只有一个模式,也不存在某一理想的社区模式。每个社区都是其组成人民的独特的联合。许多成立的好社区丰富了人类存在的形式和结构。因此,建立越多社区,我们就会有更多机会来探索在世上生存的可能方式,同时也能探索使自己个性丰满的不同方式。









一些职工绩效管理的报告认为,组织架构已经存在。例如,早先,我引用的Ainsworth和 Smith(1993)的理论:


(Ainsworth和 Smith,1993,第5-6页)


但从早期文献可以看出,在英国组织绩效管理系统的主导性其实是绩效评估的进化发展,或像Lundy和Cowling说的“一种逻辑的进展”,这在其他方面可能也是正确的,例如,在美国的Bernardin等人提出用“绩效管理”代替“绩效评估”。考虑到这些,我将概括一个绩效管理发展和执行的方法,这种方法与进化的立场一致,但也允许根本的和基础的变化,这个方法的基础来自于Mohrm an等人。虽然评估系统的设计作为一种方法提出,但就像在英国传统实践那样,它方便地应用于绩效管理,因此我将用绩效管理有关的术语来描述它,我将用M ohrman等人的模板作为通用架构。在这个架构中,我将吸收其他模板,包括来自于机会管理的更广泛的文化,近来,许多绩效管理系统设计模板的显著特点是强调诊断和分析。




现代的国民账户体系源于Richard Stone的著作和联合国在二十世纪四十年代制订的报告《国民收入测量和社会账户结构》(联合国,1947)。制订国民账户的标准持续发展,许多国现在用联合国的国民账户体系,F系列,第2号,第3版(通常被称为1968国民账户体系),然而国民账户体系的第4版在1993年已经完成。因为更多的国家使用新版本,世界发展指数的2001版引入了1993国民账户体系的专用术语(参见原始数据文献)。



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