Civil engineering,the oldest of the engineering specialties,木工程学作为最老的工程技术学科is the planning,design,construcion,and management of the built environment. 是指规划,设计,施工及对建筑环境的管理。This environment includes all structures built according to scientific principles,from irrigation and drainage systems to rocke-launching facilities. 此处的环境包括建筑符合科学规范的所有结构,从灌溉和排水系统到火箭发射设施。

Civil engineers木工程师build r oa ds, br idges,tunnels,dam s,ha r bors,pow er pla nts,w ate r and sew age sy stem s,hos pitals sc hools,m ass trans it,a nd othe r public facilities es se ntial to m oder n s ocie ty and la rge popula tion conce ntra tions.建造道路,桥梁,管道,大坝,海港,发电厂,给排水系统,医院,学校,公共交通和其他现代社会和大量人口集中地区的基础公共设施。They als o build priva tely ow ne d facilities suc h as airports,railr oa ds,pipeline s, sky scrapers,a nd other large s tucture s desig ne d f or indus tr ial,c om m ercial,or re side ntial use. 他们也建造私有设施,比如飞机场,铁路,管线,摩天大楼,以及其他设计用作工业,商业和住宅途径的大型结构。In a ddition,C ivil e ngineers pla n,des ig n,a nd build c om plete cities a nd tow ns,a nd m ore recently have be en pla nning a nd des igning s pace platf orm s to house se lf-containe d c om m unitie s. 此外,土木工程师还规划设计及建造完整的城市和乡镇,并且最近一直在规划设计容纳设施齐全的社区的空间平台。

The word civil derives from the Latin for citizen. 土木一词来源于拉丁文词“公民”。In 1782,Englishman Johe Smeaton used the term to differentiate his nonmilitary engineering work from that of the military engineers who predominated at the time. 在1782年,英国人John Smeaton为了把他的非军事工程工作区别于当时占优势地位的军事工程师的工作而采用的名词。Since then,the term civil engineering has often been used to refer to refer to engineers who build puild public facilities,although the field is much broader. 自从那时起,土木工程学被用于提及从事公共设施建设的工程师,尽管其包含的领域更为广阔。

Scope.领域。Because it is so broad,civil engineering is subdiuided into a number of technical specialties. 因为包含范围太广,土木工程学又被细分为大量的技术专业。Depending on the type of proiect,the skills of many kings of civil engineer specialists may be needed. 不同类型的工程需要多种不同土木工程专业技术。When a project begins,the site is surveyed and mapped by civil engineers who locate utility placement water,sewer,and power lines. 个项目开始的时候,土木工程师要对场地进行测绘,定位有用的布置,如地下水水位,下水道,和电力线。Geotechnical specialists perform soil experiments to determine if the earth can bear the weight of the project岩土工程专家则进行土力学试验以确定土壤能否承受工程荷载。.Environmental specialists study the project’s impact on the local area: the potential for air and groundwater pollution,the project’s impact on local animal and plant life,and how the project can be designed to meet government requirements aimed at protecting

the environment. 环境工程专家研究工程对当地的影响,包括对空气和地下水的可能污染,对当地动植物生活的影响,以及如何让工程设计满足政府针对环境保护的需要。Transportation specialists determine what kind of facilities are needed to ease the burden on local roads and other transportation networks that will result from the completed project. 交通工程专家确定必需的不同种类设施以减轻由整个工程造成的对当地公路和

其他交通网络的负担。Meanwhile,structural specialists use preliminary date to make detailed designs,plans,and specifications for the project. 同时,结构工程专家利用初步数据对工程作详细规划,设计和说明。

Supervising and coordinating the work of these civil engineer specialists,from beginning to end of the project,are the construction management specialists. 从项目开始到结束,对这些土木工程专家的工作进行监督和调配的则是施工管理专家。Based on information supplied by the other specialists,construction management civil engineers estimate quantities and costs of materials and labor,schedule all work,order materials and

equipment for the job,hire contractors and subcontractors,and perform other supervisory work to ensure the project is completed on time and as specified. 根据其他专家所提供的信息,施工管理专家计算材料和人工的数量和花费,所有工作的进度表,订购工作所需要的材料和设备,雇佣承包商和分包商,还要做些额外的监督工作以确保工程能按时按质完成。

Throughout any given project. 贯穿任何给定项目,Civil engineers make extensive use of computers. 土木工程师都需要大量使用计算机.Computers are used to design the project’s various elements (computer-aided design,or CAD)and to manage it. 计算机用于设计工程中使用的多数元件(即计算机辅助设计,或者CAD)并对其进行管理。Computers are a necessity for the modern civil engineers because they permit the engineer to efficiently handle the large quantities of data needed in determining the best way to construct a project. 计算机成为了现代土木工程师的必备品,因为它使得工程师能有效地掌控所需的大量数据从而确定建造一项工程的最佳方法。

Structural engineering.结构工程学In this speciality civil engineers plan and design structures of all types ,including bridges, dams, power plants, supports for equipment ,special structures for offshore projects, the United States space program, transmission towers, giant astronomical and radio telescopes ,and many other kinds of projects. 在这一专业领域,土木工程师规划设计各种类型的结构,包括桥梁,大坝,发电厂,设备支撑,海面上的特殊结构,美国太空计划,发射塔,庞大的天文和无线电望远镜,以及许多其他种类的项目。Using computers, structural engineers determine the forces a structure must resist: its own weight, wind and hurricane forces, temperature changes that expand or contract construction materials, and earthquakes. 结构工程师应用计算机确定一个结构必须承受的力:自重,风荷载和飓风荷载,建筑材料温度变化引起的胀缩,以及地震荷载。They also determine the combination of appropriate materials, steel, concrete, plastic, stone, asphalt, brick, aluminum, or other construction materials. 他们也需确定不同种材料如钢筋,混凝土,塑料,石头,沥青,砖,铝或其他建筑材料等的复合作用。

Water resources engineering. 水利工程学。Civil engineers in this specialty deal with all aspects of the physical control of water. 土木工程师在这一领域主要处理水的物理控制方面的种种问题。Their projects help prevent floods, supply water for cities and for irrigation, manage and control rivers and water runoff, and maintain beaches and other waterfront facilities. 他们的项目用于帮助预防洪水灾害,提供城市用水和灌溉用水,管理控制河流和水流物,维护河滩及其他滨水设施。In addition, they design and maintain harbors, eanals, and locks, build huge hydroelectric dams and smaller dams and water impoundments of all kinds, help design offshore structures, and determine the location of structures affecting navigation. 此外,他们设计和维护海港,运河与水闸,建造大型水利大坝与小型坝,以及各种类型的围堰,帮助设计海上结构并且确定结构的位置对航行影响。

Geotechnical engineering.岩土工程学Civil engineers who specialize in this field analyze the properties of soils and rocks that support structures and affect structural behavior.专业于这个领域的土木工程师对支撑结构并影


They evaluate and work to minimize the potential settlement of buildings and other structures that stems from the pressure of their weight on the earth. 他们计算建筑和其他结构由于自重压力可能引起的沉降,并采取措施使之减少到最小。These engineers also evaluate and determine how to strengthen the stability of slopes and fills and how to protect structures against earthquakes and the effects of groundwater他们也需计算并确定如何加强斜坡和填充物的稳定性以及如何保护结构免受地震和地下水的影响。

.Environmental engineering.环境工程学In this branch of engineering, civil engineers design, build, and supervise systems to provide safe drinking water and to prevent and control pollution of water supplies, both on

the surface and underground. 在这一工程学分支中,土木工程师设计,建造并监视系统以提供安全的饮用水,同时预防和控制地表和地下水资源供给的污染They also design, build, and supervise projects to control or eliminate pollution of the land and air. These engineers build water and waste water treatment plants, and design air scrubbers and other devices to minimize or eliminate air pollution caused by industrial processes, incineration, or other smoke producing activities. 他们也设计,建造并监视工程以控制甚至消除对土地和空气的污染。他们建造供水和废水处理厂,设计空气净化器和其他设备以最小化甚至消除由工业加工、焚化及其他产烟生产活动引起的空气污染。They also work to control toxic and hazardous wastes through the construction of special dump sites or the neutralizing of toxic and hazardous substances他们也采用建造特殊倾倒地点或使用有毒有害物中和剂的措施来控制有毒有害废弃物. Inaddition ,the engineers design and manage sanitary landfills

to prevent pollution of surrounding land. 此外,工程师还对垃圾掩埋进行设计和管理以预防其对周围环境造成污染。

Transportation engineering. 交通工程学。Civil engineers working in this specialty build facilities to ensure safe and efficient movement of both people and goods. 从事这一专业领域的土木工程师建造可以确保人和货物安全高效运行的设施。They specialize in designing and maintaining all types of transportation facilities, highways and streets, mass transit systems, railroads and airfields, ports and harbors. 他们专门研究各种类型运输设施的设计和维护,如公路和街道,公共交通系统,铁路和飞机场,港口和海港。Transportation engineers applpy technological knowledge as well as consideration of the eoonomic, pontical, and social factors in designing each project. 交通工程师应用技术知识及考虑经济,政治和社会因素来设计每一个项目。They work closely with urban planners, since the quality of the community is directily related to the quality of the transportation system. 他们的工作和城市规划者十分相似,因为交通运输系统的质量直接关系到社区的质量。

Pipeline engineering. 渠道工程学。In this branch of civil engineering, engineers build pipelines and related facilities which transport liquids, gases, or solids ranging from coal slurries (mixed coal and water)and semiliquid wastes, to water, oil, and various types of highly combustible and noncombustible gases. 在土木工程

学的这一支链中,土木工程师建造渠道和运送从煤泥浆(混合的煤和水)和半流体废污,到水、石油和多种类型的高度可燃和不可燃的气体中分离出来的液体,气体和固体的相关设备The engineers determine pipeline design, the economic and environmental impact of a project on regions it must traverse,the type of materials to be used-steel, concrete, plastic,or combinations of various materials-installation techniques, methods for testing plpeline strength, and controls for maintaining proper pressure and rate of flow of materials being transported. 工程师决定渠道的设计,项目所处地区必须考虑到的经济性和环境因素,以及所使用材料的类型——钢、混凝土、塑料、或多种材料的复合——的安装技术,测试渠道强度的方法,和控制所运送流体材料保持适当的压力和流速。When hazardous materials are being carried, safety is a major consideration as well. 当流体中携带危险材料时,安全性因素也需要被考虑。

Construction engineering.建筑工程学Civil engineers in this field oversee the construction of a project from beginning to end。土木工程师在这个领域中从开始到结束监督项目的建筑。Sometimes called project engineers, they apply both technical and managerial skills, including knowledge of construction methods, planning, organizing, financing, and operating construction projects. 他们,有时被称为项目工程师,应用技术和管理技能,包括建筑工艺,规划,组织,财务,和操作项目建设的知识。

They coordinate the activities of virtually everyone engaged in the work: the surveyors; workers who lay out and construct the temporary roads and ramps, excavate for the foundation, build the forms and pour the concrete ; and workers who build the steel framework. 事实上,他们协调工程中每个人的活动:测量员,布置和建造临时道路和斜坡,开挖基础,支模板和浇注混凝土的工人,以及钢筋工人。These engineers also make regular progress reports to the owners of the structure. 这些工程师也向结构的业主提供进度计划报告。

Community and urban planning. 社区和城市规划。Those engaged in this area of civil engineering may plan and develop communities within a city , or entire cities.从事土木工程这一方面的工程师可能规划和发展一个城市中的社区,或整个城市。Such planning involves far more than engineering consideration ; environmental, social, and economic factors in the use and developinent of land and natural resources are also key elements. 此规划中所包括的远远不仅仅为工程因素,土地的开发使用和自然资源环境的,社会的和经济的因素也是主要的成分。These civil engineers coordinate planning of public works along with private development. 这些土木工程师对公共建设工程的规划和私人建筑的发展进行协调。They evaluate the kinds of facilities needed, including streets and highways, public transportation systems , airports, port facilities , water-supply and wastewater-disposal systems, public buildings, parks, and recreational and other facilities to ensure social and economic as well as environmental well-being. 他们评估所需的设施,包括街道,公路,公共运输系统,机场,港口,给排水和污水处理系统,公共建筑,公园,和娱乐及其他设施以保证社会,经济和环境地协调发展。Photogrametry , surveying, and mapping. 摄影测量,测量学和地图绘制。The civil engineers in this specialty precisely measure the Earth’s surface to obtain reliable information for locating and designing engineering projects.在这一专业领域的土木工程师精确测量地球表面以获得可靠的信息来定位和设计工程项目This practice often involves high-technology methods such as satellite and aerial surveying and computer-processing of photographic imagery. 这一方面包括高工艺学方法,如卫星成相,航拍,和计算机成相。Radio signals from satellites, scans by laser and sonic beams, are converted to maps to provide far more accurate measurements for boring tunnels, building highways and dams, plotting flood control and irrigation projects, locating subsurface geologic formations that may affect a construction project, and a host of other building uses. 自人造卫星的无线电信号,通过激光和音波柱扫描被转换为地图,为隧道钻孔,建造高速公路和大坝,绘制洪水控制和灌溉方案,定位可能影响建筑项目的地下岩石构成,以及许多其他建筑用途提供更精准的测量。

Other specialties.其他的专门项目Two additional civil engineering specialties that are not entirely within the scope of civil engineering but are essential to the discipline are engineering management and engineering teaching.。还有两个并不完全在土木工程范围里面但对训练相当重要的附加的专门项目是工程管理和工程教学。

Engineering management.工程管理Many civil engineers choose careers that eventually lead to management.。许多土木工程师都选择最终通向管理的职业。Others are able to start their careers in management positions .

其他则能让他们的事业从管理位置开始。The civil engineer-manager combines technical knowledge with an ability to organize and coordinate worker power, materials , machinery, and money. 工程管理者结合技术上的知识和一种组织能力来协调劳动力,材料,机械和钱。These engineers may work in government-municipal, county, state, or federal; in the U.S. 这些工程师可能工作在政府——市政、国家、州或联邦;Army Corps of Engineer as military or civilian management engineers ; 在美国陆军军团作为军队或平民的管理工程师;

or in semiautonomous regional or city authorities or similar organizations. 或在半自治地区,城市主管当局或相似的组织。

They may also manage private engineering firms ranging in size from a few employees to hundreds. 他们


Engineering teaching. 工程教学The civil engineer who chooses a teaching career usually teaches both graduate and undergraduate students in technical specialties.。通常选择教学事业的土木工程师教授研究生和本科生技术上的专门项目。Many teaching civil engineers engage in basic research that eventually leads to technical innovations in construction materials and methods. 许多从事教学的土木工程师参与会导致建筑材料和施工方

法技术革新的基础研究。Many also serve as consultants on engineering projects, or on technical boards and commissions associated with major projects. 多数也担任工程项目或技术领域的顾问,和主要项目


Framed tube.框架筒体The maximum efficiency of the total structure of a tall building , for both strength and stiffness,to resist wind load can be achieved only if all column elements can be connected to each other in such a way that the entire building acts as a hollow tube or rigid box in projecting out of the ground. 只有当建筑物突出地面的所有的柱构件能够彼此连接使整个建筑物成为一个空心筒体或一个劲性箱体时,一幢高层建筑的整个结构才能最有效。(后边一句估计不考,英文不抄录,有“43”和“110”)这种特殊的结构体系第一次大概是用于芝加哥的43层楼高的德威特栗木钢筋混凝土公寓。而这一系统最重要的应用是纽约的110层楼高的世界贸易中心的钢结构双塔。

Tube in tube. 筒中筒Another system in reinforced concrete for office building combines the traditional shea wall construction with an exterior framed tube. 另一个用于办公大楼的钢筋混凝土结构体系是将内部框架筒体与传统的剪力墙工艺相结合。The system consists of anouter framed tube of very closely spaced columns and an interior rigid shear wall tube enciosing the central service area. 这种体系由间距很小的柱子构成的外框架筒与围绕中心设备区的刚性剪力墙内筒组成。(后边一句估计不考,英文不抄录,有“714 or 218 休斯敦”)这种被称为筒中筒的体系使设计目前世界上最高(714英尺或218米),总费用只相当于传统35层楼高的剪力墙结构体系的轻型混凝土建筑(52层楼高的休斯顿的壳广场建筑)成为可能。

P10基础--The sizes of footing are determined by dividing the loads to be imposed at the base of the footings by the allowable bearing pressure which can be imposed on the soil or rock of the earth. 基础的尺寸是由可能施加在基础底部的荷载除以地基土和岩石能够承担的容许支撑力来确定的。Most building codes and textbooks on foundations contain tables listing allowable bearing pressures for various types of soil and rock;大部分建筑规范和教科书关于基础部分都包括不同类型土体或岩石的容许支撑力图表。However, these tables give only general classification and descriptions of the soil or rock and must be used with caution.然而,这些图表仅仅给了一个对土体或岩石粗略分类的描述,因此,使用时必须小心。More specific information about the soil or rock is normally obtained by drilling test borings, extracting soil or rock samples, performing laboratory tests on the samples, and making engineering analysis to determine suitable bearing pressures.更多关于土体或岩石的具体信息要靠钻探试验:选择土体或岩石试样,室内试验和决定容许承载力的工程分析获得。In addition to bearing pressure, consideration must be given to the amount of settlement which may occur and the capability of the structure to withstand such settlement.除了支撑压力,还必须考虑可能发生的沉降量以及可能承受这种沉降的能力。If settlement is a problem it may be necessary to use an alternate foundation type rather than footings or to enlarge the footing and decrease the bearing pressure.如果荷载量是一个问题,那么也许有必要用一个可替换的基础形式,而不是独立基础,或者增大基础尺寸以减小承载力

P33--It is now commonplace in high-rise buildings to use a combination of these composite forms of construction.现在的高层建筑中普遍使用这些复合结构的组合形式。For example,the colums may be concrete-filled tubes or encased I-secctions, and these are connected to the core of the building by steel I-beam components.例如,可能是钢管混凝土管或包裹的工字型,这是通过工字钢梁连接到建筑物的核心组件。These I-beams are then made composite by laying steel profiled sheeting onto their top flange elements,welding stud shear connectors through the profiled sheeting into the flanges and pouring the concrete slab to form the flooring of the building storey.这些柱子由铺设钢异形复合薄膜在顶部法兰元素制成的复合焊接剪力连接件,螺栓通过压型钢板在法兰和浇注的混凝土板形式的建筑层地板。The I-sections must be connected to the columns by some form of

mechanical connection,which is not to be confused with the mechanical shear connectors considered sp far.到目前为止,工字型必须由某种形式的机械连接到列,不可与机械剪力连接件混淆。Such composite connections are still the subject of vigorous on-goingresearch,and are not treated in this book.这样的组合连接目前仍处于充满活力的课题研究阶段,本书在此不做解释。

P15-- Steel erection:钢结构安装the construction of a steel structureconsists of the assembly at the site of mill-rolled or shop-fabricated steel sections. 钢结构安装是把工厂轧制或车间加工好的钢构件运至施工现场进行拼装的一种施工方法。The steel sections may consist of beams ,columns ,or small trusses which are joined together by riveting,bloting,or welding.这些钢构件通常是利用铆钉锚固,焊接或者螺栓连接在一起的梁柱或小桁架等。It is more economical to assemble sections of the structure at a fabricating shop rather than in the fiedld, but the size of preassembled units is limited by the capacity of transportation and erection equipment.一般来说,在工厂拼装要比在施工现场拼装更经济,但受运输的能力或吊装设备限制,在工厂拼装的构件不能太大或太重。The crane is the most common type a crane ,ti is necessary to place one or more derricks on the structure to handle the steel.钢结构安装用的最多的设备是起重机,但是起重机不能起吊太高或面积太大的结构,那就需要一台或更多台固定在结构上的自爬式起重机来吊装这些钢构件。In high structures the derrick must be constantlysdismantled and reercted to successively higher levels to raise the structure.在较高的结构上,自爬式起重机需要经常拆除,然后重新安装到新的更高的楼层上以提升构件。For river bridges the steel may be handled by cranes on barges ,or,if the bridge is too high,by traveling derricks which ride on the bridge being erected.利用驳船上的起重机来吊装钢结构桥梁,但是当桥太高时,那就需要移动安装在桥上的自爬式起重机,悬吊式桥梁一般是通过专门的设备在现场组装,cables for long suspension beidges are assembled in place by special equipment that pulls the wire from a reel,set up at one anchorage across to the opposite anchorage,repeating the operation until the bundle of wires is of the required size.这种设备将缆绳从卷轴上拉出,固定在一个锚固端,穿过另一锚固端,重复这个过程直到线束达到需要尺寸。

p15--concrete construction.混凝土施工,concrete construction consists of several operation:forming, concreate production, placemeng,and curing.混凝土施工包括以下几个施工过程:支模、制备混凝土、浇筑和养护。Forming is reqired to contain and support the fluid concrete with its desored final outline until it solidifies and can support itself.模板需要能够容纳和支撑在设计的最终形状内的液体混凝土重量,直到它硬化并能够承受自重。The formis made of timberor steel sections or a combination of both and is held together during the concrete placing by external bracing or internal ties.模板是由木材或钢构件或者两者组合而成。The forms and ties are disingned to with stand the temporary fluid pressure of the concrete.这些模板在混凝土浇筑中通过外部支撑或内部杆件连接在一起,模板和杆件要能承受混凝土初凝前液体压力。

The usual practice for vertical walls is to leave the forms in position for atbeast a day after the concrete is placed. They are removed when the concrete has solidified or set.对墙体的施工来说,通常的拆模应在混凝土浇筑完成后一天以上,待混凝土凝固后才可以拆除模板。Slip-forming is a method where the form is constantly in motion, just ahead of the level of fresh concrete.滑膜是一种这样的施工方法:模板总是不断的移动,正好位于刚浇筑混凝土的上一层。the form is lifted upward by means of jacks which are mounted on vertical rods embedded in the concrete and are spaced along the perimeter of the structure. 滑膜通过千斤顶向上移动,这些千斤顶安装在预埋于混凝的竖杆上,并沿着结构周边间隔排列。slip forms are used for high structures such as silos ,tanks,or chimneys.滑膜施工主要用于筒仓、油箱或烟囱等高怂的建筑物中。

P17—结构The analysis for gravity and wind loads is performed by the application of the usual methods for linear-elastic statically determinate and indeterminate structures. 重力和风荷载的分析是应用线弹性静定和超静定结构的常规分析法来进行的。for earthquake forces, a building designed with a conventional rectangular

configuration is anaysed by the equivalent lateral load method prescribed by the local building code. 对于地震荷载,被设计成传统矩形形状的建筑物是由当地建筑规范的等量侧向荷载方法所分析的。For other types of irregular building having abrupt changes in plan and elevation, dynamic methods of analysis must be used in order to determine the internal stresses on all the components of the structure. 其他类型的不规则的建筑平面和立面的突然变化,动态分析方法必须以确定对结构各构件的内力。These dynamic methods of analysis require an understanding of the principles of structural dynamics and vibrations of buildings.这些动力分析方法需要了解建筑结构的动力原理和振动原理。as such, because of the complexity of the methods, highly sophisticated computers are required to determine the solution of the many equations of motions of the structure. 正是这样,由于方法的复杂性,需要高精密的计算机求解很多结构动力学方程。