语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

Chapter Four From Word to Text

I. Mark the choice that best completes the statement.

1.Which of the following term does NOT mean the same as the relation of substitutability ?

A. Associative relation

B. Paradigmatic relation

C. Vertical relation

D. Horizontal relation

2. Clauses can be used as subordinate constituents and the three basic types of subordinate clauses are complement clauses, adjuncts clauses and _______.

A. relative clauses

B. adverbial clauses

C. coordinate clauses

D. subordinate clauses

3. Names of the syntactic functions are expressed in all the following terms EXCEPT ______.

A. subjects and objects

B. objects and predicators

C. modifiers and complements

D. endocentric and exocentric

4. In English, case is a special form of the noun which frequently corresponds to a combination of perception and noun and it is realized in all the following channels EXCEPT _______.

A. inflection

B. following a preposition

C. word order

D. vertical relation

5. In English, theme and rheme are often expressed by _____ and ____.

A. subject; object

B. subject; predicate

C. predicate; object

D. object; predicate

6. Phrase structure rules have _____ properties.

A. recursive

B. grammatical

C. social

D. functional

7. Which of the following is NOT among the three basic ways to classify languages in the world ?

A. Word order

B. Genetic classification

C. Areal classification

D. Social classification

8. The head of the phrase the city Rome is ______.

A. the city

B. Rome

C. city

D. the city Rome

9. The phrase on the shelf belongs to ______ construction.

A. endocentric

B. exocentric

C. subordinate

D. coordinate

10. The sentence They were wanted to remain quiet and not to expose themselves is a _____ sentence.

A. simple

B. coordinate

C. compound

D. complex

II. Mark the following statements with “T” if they are true or “F” if they are false.

1.The relation of co-occurrence partly belong to syntagmatic relations, partly to

paradigmatic relations.

2.One property coordination reveals is that there is a limit on the number of

coordinated categories that can appear prior to the conjunction.

3.According to Standard Theory of Chomsky, deep structure contain all the

information necessary for the semantic interpretation of sentences.

4.In English, the object is recognized by tracing its relation to word order and by

inflections of pronouns.

5.Classes and functions determine each other, but not in any one-to-one relation.

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmlually noun phrases, verb phrases and adverbial phrases belong to endocentric

types of constriction.

7.In English the subject usually precedes the verb and the direct object usually

follows the verb.

8.In the exocentric construction John kicked the ball, neither constituent stands for

the verb-object sequence.

9. A noun phrase must contain a noun, but other elements are optional.

10.In a coordinate sentence, two (or more) S constituents occur as daughters and

co-heads of a higher S.

III. Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word. The first letter of the word is already given.

1.The subordinate constituents are words which modify the Heads and consequently,

they can be called m____________.

2.John believes (that the airplane was invented by an Irishman). The part in the

bracket is a c_________ clause.

3.In order to account for the case of the subject in passive voice, we have another

two terms, p____________ and n__________.

4.There is a tendency to make a distinction between phrase and w_______, which

is an extension of word of a particular class by way of modification with its main features of the class unchanged.

5.Recursiveness, together with o_______, is generally regarded as the core of

creativity of language.

6.Traditionally, p_________ is seen as part of a structural hierarchy, positioned

between clause and word.

7.The case category is used in the analysis of word classes to identity the s______

relationship between words in a sentence.

8.Clause can be classifies into FINITE and NON-FINITE clauses, the latter

including the traditional infinitive phrase, p__________, and gerundial phrase.

9.Gender displays such contrasts as masculine: feminine: n_______.

10.English gender contrast can only be observed in g__________ and a small number

of l__________ and they are mainly of the natural gender type.

IV. Explain the following concepts or theories.

1.Syntax

2.IC analysis

3.Relation of co-occurrence

4.Category

5.Recursiveness

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

VI. Answer the following question.

1.What are endocentric construction and exocentric construction?

2.What are the basic functional terms in syntax?

VII. Essay question.

1.Explain an comment on the following sentence a and b.

a.John is easy to please.

b.John is eager to please.

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmlment on the statement, “Linguistic structure is hiearchical”

I. Mark the following statements with “T” if they are true or “F” if they are false.

1.The syntactic rules of any language are finite in number, but they are capable of

yielding an infinite number of sentences.

2.Although, a single word can also be uttered as a sentence, normally a sentence

consists of at least a subject, its predicate and an object.\

3.The sentences are linearly structured, so they are composed of sequence of words

arranged in a simple linear order.

4. a.John his upon an idea.

b.An idea hit upon John.

In the above sentences, the subject and object constituent by the sentences switch their position. Although sentence b is absurd, it is still grammatical, because John and an idea are of the same phrasal category.

5.Though they are of a small number, the combinational rules are powerful enough

to yield all the possible sentences and rule out the impossible ones.

6.In a sentence like Mary likes flowers, both Mary and flowers are not only Nouns,

but also Noun Phrases.

7.The recursive property can basically be discussed in a category-based grammar,

but not in a word-based grammar.

8.An XP must contain an X which is called the phrasal head.

9.In the phrase this very tall girl, tall girl is an obligatory element and the head of

the phrase.

10.a. The man beat the child. b. The child was beaten by the man.

In the above sentences, the movement of the child from its original place to a new place is a WH- movement.

11.Tense and aspect, the two important categories of the verb, nowadays are viewed

as separate notions in grammar.

12.The structuralists regard linguistic units as isolated bits in a structure (or system).

13.IC analysis can help us to see the internal structure of a sentence clearly and it can

also distinguish the ambiguity of a sentence.

14.Structural linguists hold that a sentence does only have a linear structure, but it

has a hierarchical structure, made up of layers of word groups.

15.In Saussure’s view, the linguist cannot attempt to explain individual signs in a

piecemeal fashion. Instead he must try to find the value of a sign from its relation to others, or rather, its position in the system.

16.The theme-rheme order is the usual one in unemotional narration, which is a

subjective order.

17.What is new in Halliday is that he has tried to relate the functions of language to

its structure.

18.Sentence is a basic unit of structure in functional grammar.

19.The interpersonal function of language refers to the idea held by Halliday that

language serves ot establish and maintain social relations.

20.Finite is a function in the clause as a representation, both the representation of

outer experience and inner experience.

21.The relations of co-occurrence partly belong to syntagmatic relations, partly to

paradigmatic relations.

22.According to Chomsky, grammar is a mechanism that should be able to generate

all and only the grammatical sentences of a language.

23.In English, the subject of a sentence is said to be the doer of an action, while the

object is the person or thing acted upon by the doer. Therefore, the subject is always an agent and the patient is always the object.

24.In English, the object is recognized by tracing its relation to word order and by

inflections of pronouns.

25.Classes and functions determine each other, but not in any one-to-one relation.

26.The syntactic rules of a language are finite in number, and there are a limited

number of sentences which can be produced.

27.Structuralism views language as both linearly and hierarchically structured.

28.Phrase structure rules provide explanations on how syntactic categories are

formed and sentences generated.

29.UG is a system of linguistic knowledge and a human species-specific gift which

exists in the mind of a normal human being.

30.Tense and aspect are two important categories of the verb, and they were

separated in traditional grammar.

II. Fill in each of the following blanks with (an) appropriate word(s).

1.As is required by the ______, a noun phrase must have case and case is assigned

by verb, or preposition to the _________ position or by auxiliary to the ________ position.

2.Adjacency condition states that a case _________ and a case _______ should stay

adjacent to each other.

3.The general movement rule accounting for the syntactic behavior of any

constituent movement is called __________.

4.The phrase structure rules, with the insertion of the lexicon, generate sentences at

the level of _________.

5.The application of syntactic movement rules transforms a sentence from the level

of ________ to that of ______.

6.In English there are two major types of movement, one involving the movement

of an NP is called __________ movement and the other a WH-word is called _________movement.

7. a. The boy ate the apple.

c.The apple was eaten by the boy.

In Sentence b, the boy and the apple are moved from their original positions in

Sentence a to new positions, with the boy _________ to the right and the man ________ to the left.

8.In the sentence the man was bitten by a dog, the man is both the _______ subject

and the ___________ object.

9.The decision on where to make the cuts in IC analysis relies on ________:

whether a sequence of words can be substituted for a single word and the structure remains the same.

10.IC Analysis is different from the traditional parsing in that IC emphasizes the

function of the _________ level-word group, seeing a hierarchical structure of the sentence as well.

11.The subordinate constituents are words which modify the head and consequently,

they can be called __________.

12.John believes (that the airplane was invented by an Irishman).

The part in the bracket is a __________ clause.

13.In order to account for the case of the subject in passive voice, we have another

two terms, ________ and _________.

14.English gender contrast can only be observed in ________ and a small number of

_______ and they are mainly of the natural gender type.

15.There is tendency to make a distinction between phrase and ________, which is

an extension of word of a particular class by way of modification with its main features of the class unchanged.

16.Recursiveness, together with _________, is generally regarded as the core of

creativity of language.

17.Normally a sentence consists of at least a subject and a predicate which contains a

________ verb or a verb phrase.

18.The sequential order of words in a sentence suggests that the structure of a

sentence is ________.

19.The starting point of an utterance which is known in the given situation and from

which the speaker proceeds is named ________.

20.___________ structure can become the sole responsible structure for semantic

interpretation by the introduction of the trace theory.

III. Mark the choice that best completes the statement.

1.The sentence John likes linguistics, but Mary is interested in history is a _______ sentence.

A. simple

B. coordinate

C. complex

D. relational

2. In the sentence Mary told Jane that John liked linguistics the introductory word that is called _______.

A. coordinating conjunction

B. conjunction

C. subordinator

D. embedded word

3. The student // likes the new linguistics professor. The above segmentation truthfully reveals the _______ nature of sentence structure.

A. hierarchical

B. linear

C. horizontal

D. parallel

4. The sentence The tall man and women left can be illustrated by tree diagram _____.

A.(1)

B.(2)

C. both (1) and (2)

D. neither

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

5.According to the following three diagram, V can only be replaced by ____.

A. sat

B. brought

C. pushed

D. none

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

6.a.John likes linguistics the most.

b.It was linguistics that John liked the most

Which of the following statements about the two sentences (a and b) given above is NOT true ?

A. In both sentence a and sentence b, John is the logical subject.

B. In structural concept, John is the structural subject of a sentence.

C. It in sentence b is the structural subject of the matrix clause.

D. John is the structural subject in both a and b.

7.The conclusion that a set of principles or rules govern language use is based on the observation that _________.

A.Speakers make acceptability judgment about sentences they have never heard before.

B.Speech is a habit-structure.

C.Imitation accounts for language acquisition.

D.Phonological information must form part of syntactic movement.

8.The symbol N indicates a/an ________.

A.lexical category

B.phrasal category

C.intermediate category

D. lexical insertion rule

9.Of the following combination possibilities, ______ can NOT be generated from the following rule: NP →(Det)(Adj)N(PP)(S).

A. NP →N

B.NP →Det Adj S

C.NP →Det N

D.NP →Det Adj N PPS.

10.An advantage of X-bar syntax over phrase structure syntax is that X-bar.

A.avoid a ploliferation of redundant intermediate categories.

B.allows us to identify indefinitely long embedded sentences.

C. allows as to postulate categories other than lexical and phrasal.

D. forces us to conclude that the ambiguity of phrases like the English King is

lexical rather than structural.

11. Which set of rules generates the following tree structures?

语言学教程(第四版)练习 第4章

A. S →NP VP

B. NP → VP

NP→N PP NP→NP NP PP

VP→V NP VP→V NP PP

PP →P NP PP →P NP

NP→N NP →N

C.S VP VP D, S NP VP

NP→(NP/PP) NP →NP (NP /PP)

VP →V NP VP →V NP

PP →P NP PP →P NP

NP→N NP →N

12.a.It seems they are quite fit for the job.

b. They seem quite fit for the job.

Sentence b is a result of ______ movement.

A.NP

B.WH

C.AUX.

D. None

13. The head of the phrase underneath the open window is _______.

A.underneath

B.the

C.open

D.window

14.The following statements are in accordance with Hallliday’s opinion on language EXCEPT _______.

A.The use of language involves a network of systems of choices.

B. Language is never used as a mere mirror of reflected thought.

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmlnguage is a system of abstract forms and signs.

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmlnguage functions as a piece of human behavior.

15.Chomsky is more concerned with ____ relations in his approach to syntax.

A.syntagmatic

B.structural

C.paradigmatic

D.transformational

16.______ is a type of control over the form of some words by other words in Certain syntactic constructions and in terms of certain category.

A.Concord

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmlernment

C. Binding

D. Co-command

17. Clauses can be used as subordinate constituents and the three basic types of subordinate clauses are complement clauses, adjunct clauses and _____.

A.relative clauses

B.adverbial clauses

C.coordinate clauses

D.subordinate clauses

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmls of the syntactic functions are expressed in all the following terms EXCEPT_____.

A.subjects and objects

B.objects and predicators

C.modifiers and complements

D. endocentric and exocentric

19.In English, case is a special form of the noun which frequently corresponds to a combination of preposition and noun and it is realized in all the following channels EXCEPT ______.

A.inflection

B.following a preposition

C.word order

D.vertical relation

20. Clauses can be classified into finite and non-finite clauses, _____ including the traditional infinitive phrases, participial phrase and gerundial phrase.

A. the former

B. the latter

C.both

D. neither

21.It is the _______ on case assignment that states that a case assignor and a case recipient should stay adjacent to each other.

A. Case Condition

B.Adjacent Condition

C.Parameter Condition

D.Adjacent Parameter.

22.Predication analysis is a way to analyze _______ meaning.

A. phoneme

B. word

C. phrase…d. sentence

23.Which of the following italic parts is NOT an idiom?

A. How to you do?

B. How did you do ?

C. He went to it hammer and tongs.

D. They kept tabs on the Russian spy.

24.When we say that we can change the second word in the sentence she is singing in the room with another word or phrase, we are talking about ______.

A. government

B. linear relations

C. syntactic relations

D. paradigmatic relations

25.IN the phrase structure rule S→NP VP, the arrow can be read as ______.

A. has

B. generates

C. consists of

D. is equal to

IV. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible, giving examples if necessary.

1.The following two sentences are ambiguous. Show the two readings of each by

drawing its respective tree diagrams.

(1)The ball man and woman left

(2) Visiting professor can be interesting

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmle an example to show what a tree diagram is (as it is used in

Transformational-Generative Grammar).

http://www.360docs.net/doc/503024009fc3d5bbfd0a79563c1ec5da50e2d6ad.htmle an example to show what IC analysis is.

4.What are the three general functions of language according to Halliday?

5.What distinguishes the structural approach to syntax from the traditional one?

6.Some grammar books say there are three basic tenses in English-the present, the

past and the future; others say there are only two basic tenses –the present and the past. Explain what tense is and whether it is justifiable to say there is a future tense in English.

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