门禁监管系统外文翻译(含原文)access control system

沈阳工业大学

本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译毕业设计题目:楼宇门禁监管系统软件设计

学院:信息科学与工程学院

专业班级:通信工程0902

学生姓名:格根哈斯090404049

指导教师:赵柏山

2013年03 月18 日

门禁管理系统原理

门禁系统是最近几年才在国内广泛应用的又一高科技安全设施之一,现已成为现代建筑的智能化标志之一。门禁,即出入口控制系统,是对出入口通道进行管制的系统,门禁系统是在传统的门锁基础上发展而来的(英文

E NTRANCE G UARD /A CCESS C ONTROL)。

在现实中访问控制是,我们的日常生活中的现象。一车门上的锁,本质上是一种形式的访问控制。在一家银行的ATM系统是一个PIN访问控制的另一种方式。站在一家夜总会门前的安保人员是缺乏涉及信息技术,也许是更原始的访问控制模式。拥有访问控制是当人寻求安全,机密或敏感的信息和设施时非常重要的.项目控制或电子钥匙管理的区域内(和有可能集成),一个访问控制系统,它涉及到管理小资产或物理(机械)键的位置。一个人可以被允许物理访问,根据支付,授权等。

有可能是单向交通的人,这些都可以执行人员,如边防卫兵,一个看门人,检票机等,或与设备,如旋转门。有可能会有围栏,以避免规避此访问控制。在严格意义上的访问控制(实际控制访问本身)的另一种方法是一个系统的检查授权的存在,例如,车票控制器(运输)。一个变种是出口控制,例如的店(结帐)或一个国家。在物理安全方面上的访问控制是指属性,建筑,或授权人一个房间,限制入口的做法。

在这些环境中,物理密钥管理还可以进一步管理和监控机械键区或某些小资产。物理访问控制访问的一种手段,是谁,地点和时间的问题。访问控制系统决定谁可以进入或退出,在那里他们被允许离开或进入,而当他们被

允许进入或退出。从历史上看,这已经部分实现通过钥匙和锁。当门被锁定只有有人用一把钥匙可以通过门禁,这时取决于锁定如何配置。机械锁和钥匙的钥匙持有人在特定的时间或日期内允许访问。机械锁和钥匙不提供任何特定的门上使用的密钥记录,可以很容易地复制或转移到未经授权的人。当机械钥匙丢失或钥匙持有人不再授权使用受保护的区域,锁必须重新键入。电子访问控制使用计算机来解决机械锁和钥匙的限制

广泛的凭证可以用来取代传统的机械按键。电子门禁系统授予访问权限是根据凭据基础上提出的。授予访问权限时,在一个预定的时间里门被解锁,并记录交易。当访问被拒绝,门保持锁定状态,并尝试访问记录。如果门被强行打开或被解锁后保持打开时间过长,该系统还将监控门和报警。

访问控制系统决定谁可以进入或退出,在那里他们被允许离开或进入,而当他们被允许进入或退出。从历史上看,这已经部分实现通过钥匙和锁。当门被锁定只有有人用一把钥匙可以通过门禁,这时取决于锁定如何配置。机械锁和钥匙的钥匙持有人在特定的时间或日期内允许访问。机械锁和钥匙不提供任何特定的门上使用的密钥记录,可以很容易地复制或转移到未经授权的人。当机械钥匙丢失或钥匙持有人不再授权使用受保护的区域,锁必须重新键入。电子访问控制使用计算机来解决机械锁和钥匙的限制。授予访问权限时,在一个预定的时间里门被解锁,并记录交易。当访问被拒绝,门保持锁定状态,并尝试访问记录。如果门被强行打开或被解锁后保持打开时间过长,该系统还将监控门和报警。

当凭据提交到读取器,读取器发送的凭证的信息通常是一个数字,一个控制面板,一个高度可靠的处理器。控制面板比较凭证的号码,访问控制列表,允许或拒绝所提出的请求,并发送到数据库的事务日志。当访问被拒绝的访问控制列表的基础上,门保持锁定状态。如果有一个认证和访问控制之

间的匹配列表,控制面板操作的继电器,反过来门解锁。控制面板还忽略了一个开门信号,以防止报警。通常情况下,阅读器提供反馈,比如一个闪烁的红色LED的访问被拒绝和授予访问权限的LED指示灯呈绿色闪烁。凭证可以传来传去,从而颠覆访问控制列表。例如,A LICE拥有访问权限的服务器机房,但鲍勃没有。爱丽丝,要么给出一个鲍勃她的凭据或B OB需要;他现在已经进入机房的服务器。为了防止这种情况,两个因素交易被使用。在两个因素的交易,凭证和第二个因素是必要的授予访问权限;另一个因素可以是一个PIN,一个第二的凭证,操作员的干预,或生物统计输入。

有三种类型的认证信息(因素):

●用户知道的东西,EGA密码,密码短语或PIN

●用户的东西,如智能卡

●用户的东西,如指纹识别,生物特征测量验证

密码是验证用户的身份访问之前,是考虑到信息系统的常用手段。此外,第四个因素认证是目前公认的:你认识的人,其他人谁知道的情况下,系统已设置为允许这样的情况下,你可以提供一个人的因素身份验证。例如,一个用户可能有自己的密码,但忘记了自己的智能卡。在这样的场景中,如果用户是已知道指定的队列,队列可以提供他们的智能卡和密码的组合,与现存的因素,有问题的用户从而为用户提供两个因素缺少凭据,和三个因素整体以允许访问。现在,随着人们生活水平的提高和技术的进步,越来越多的本地需求,如小区出入口,车库入口,和其他公共场所的门禁控制系统需求越来越大。许多不同类型的门禁控制系统,因为它有不同的特点,所以不使用的地方,由于其较高的安全性,更好的便利性和成本效益的访问控制系统,IC卡门禁系统成为主流。IC卡技术,目前被广泛应用在各个行业,特别是公共交通,无线通信,识别,金融交易安全和国防等行业。访问控制系统通过

进口和出口管制,限制人员和车辆进入控制区,以确保控制区域的安全。CCESS 数据库软件用于实现对软件系统数据库的服务;门禁控制系统软件易于使用,简单的特点,运营商并不需要一个专业的电脑操作水平。本研究着重于地下车库的访问控制系统,访问控制系统的要求有着一个明确的方向,,这样的设计是指无线射频技术,使用计算机控制的IC卡读写器的读取和写入。

凭据

凭据是一个物理/有形物体,一块知识,或一个人的身体的存在,给定物理设备或计算机为基础的信息系统,或单个接入的一个方面。通常情况下,凭证可以是你知道的东西(如号码或PIN),你所拥有的(如接入徽章),你的东西(如生物特征)或一些组合这些项目。典型的凭据是门禁卡,钥匙链,或其他关键物品。有许多卡磁条,条形码,韦根,125 K H Z感应技术,包括26位刷卡,接触式智能卡,非接触式智能卡技术。此外,还包括密钥钥匙环,这是比身份证更紧凑和重视的关键一环。典型的生物识别技术,包括指纹识别,面部识别,虹膜识别,视网膜扫描,声音和手形。

门禁控制系统的组成

访问控制点,它可以是一门,旋转门,停车场门,电梯,或其他物理障碍,授予访问可以通过电子控制。通常情况下,无线接入点是一门。电子访问控制门可以包含多个元素。在其最基本的是一个独立的电子锁。由操作者用一个开关就锁被解锁。自动化,操作员的干预被读者所取代。阅读器可以是一个键盘输入代码,它可能是一个读卡器,或者它可能是一个生物体的读者。读者不能决定访问,但卡号发送到门禁管理面板,门禁管理面板拥有验证号码与一个访问列表。若要监视门开关的位置,使用磁性门开关。在概念上与冰箱开关门或汽车门是没有什么不同的。一般只有进入是被控制的但退出是

不受控制的。在出口是受控制的情况下,第二读取器用于开关门侧位上的。退出在没有控制的情况下,自由退出,设备称为请求退出(RTE)。请求到出口装置的可以是一个按钮,或一个运动检测器。在门口当按钮被按下或运动检测器检测到运动,门被打开时,暂时忽略门报警。而退出无需电打开门一门被称为机械的自由出口。这是一个重要的安全功能。电锁必须在退出解锁的情况下,要求对出口装置也打开门。

门禁管理系统的拓扑结构

访问控制决策是由门禁控制列表的凭据组成。此表可以是由一读者,主机或服务器,访问和控制面板来完成。门禁管理系统的发展,已经推动了从中央主机系统的边缘查找,或读的发展。大约2009是占主导地位的拓扑枢纽和辐射带控制面板的辐条的轮毂和读者。查找和控制功能是通过控制面板上。查找和控制功能是通过控制面板来完成的。辐条通过串行连接,通常是RS485通讯。一些制造商通过在门口放置一个控制器来推动决策。该控制器支持IP,能连接到主机,并使用标准的网络数据库。

读者类型

门禁管理读者由他们能够执行的功能来被分类:

●基本(非智能)读者:简单地读取卡号或密码,并将它转发到控制面

板。

在生物特征识别的情况下,这样的读者输出用户的ID号码。韦根协议通常用于将数据传送到控制面板,但其他选项,如RS-232,RS-485和时钟/数据的情况并不少见。这是最流行类型的访问控制读者。这样的读者的例子是RF微型RFLOGICS,PROX点HID,P300远东足尖数据。

●半智能的读者:半聪明的读者:有必要控制所有输入和输出控制门的

件(锁,门接触,退出按钮),但不作任何访问的决定。当用户提供一个卡或输入PIN,读取器的信息发送到主控制器,并等待其响应。如果访问到主控制器的链接中断,这样的读者在这样降级模式的情况下停止工作或功能。通常,半聪明的读者通过RS-485总线连接到控制面板。这样的读者的例子是:I NFO P ROX的精简版IPL200的CEM系统和AP-510。

智能的读者:控制所有必要的输入和输出控制门的硬件,他们也有独立

进行访问决策所需的内存和处理能力。同半聪明的读者比,他们通过RS-485总线连接到控制面板。控制面板发送配置更新和检索事件的读者。这样的读者可以是I NFO P ROX IPO200CEM系统和AP-500。也有聪明的读者称为“IP读者”的新一代。系统的IP读者通常不具备传统的控制面板,读者直接与作为主机PC的沟通。这样的读者的例子是通过I SONAS安全系统的P OWER N ET的IP 读卡器,ID08索卢斯,有内置的WEB服务,它的用户界面友好,边缘ER40读者HID G LOBAL的通过ASP I SYS的L OG L OCK UN I LOCK有限公司,S UPREMA 公司的B IO E NTRY P LUS读卡器。有些读者可能有额外的特征,如能数据收集(即打卡事件的考勤报表)的液晶显示屏和功能键,摄像头/喇叭/麦克风,对讲,智能卡读/写支持。

门禁读卡器也可以通过识别技术的不同来类型。

基于属性的访问控制

在基于属性的访问控制(ABAC),不是基于主体与用户身份验证,而是根据用户的属性。一个基于属性的访问控制策略,必须满足授予访问权限的对象。例如,要求可能是“18岁以上”。任何用户都可以证明这种说法被授予访问权限。用户可以用匿名身份验证和识别,对此并没有严格要求。例如,这可以使用匿名凭据或XACML(可扩展访问控制标记语言)来实现。

The Access control system

Access control system is widely used in recent years and it is one of the

high-tech and safety equipment , has become one of the intelligent signs of modern architecture. Access control , the export and the entrance control system, is to control the export and entrance channel system. Access control system is developed on the basis of the traditional locks (Entrance Guard/Access Control in English).

Access control is, in reality, an everyday phenomenon. A lock on a car door is essentially a form of access control. A PIN on an ATM system at a bank is another means of access control. Bouncers standing in front of a night club is perhaps a more primitive mode of access control (given the evident lack of information technology involved). The possession of access control is of prime importance when persons seek to secure important, confidential, or sensitive information and equipment .Item control or electronic key management is an area within (and possibly integrated with) an access control system which concerns the managing of possession and location of small assets or physical (mechanical) keys.

Physical access by a person may be allowed depending on payment, authorization, etc. Also there may be one-way traffic of people. These can be enforced by personnel such as a border guard, a doorman, a ticket checker, etc., or with a device such as a turnstile. There may be fences to avoid circumventing this access control. An alternative of access control in the strict sense (physically controlling

access itself) is a system of checking authorized presence, see e.g. Ticket controller (transportation). A variant is exit control, e.g. of a shop (checkout) or a country.

In physical security, the term access control refers to the practice of restricting entrance to a property, a building, or a room to authorized persons. Physical access control can be achieved by a human (a guard, bouncer, or receptionist), through mechanical means such as locks and keys, or through technological means such as access control systems like the Access control vestibule.

Within these environments , physical key management may also be employed as a means of further managing and monitoring access to mechanically keyed areas or access to certain small assets . Physical access control is a matter of who , where, and when. An access control system determines who is allowed to enter or exit, where they are allowed to exit or enter, and when they are allowed to enter or exit. Historically this was partially accomplished through keys and locks. When a door is locked only someone with a key can enter through the door depending on how the lock is configured. Mechanical locks and keys do not allow restriction of the key holder to specific times or dates. Mechanical locks and keys do not provide records of the key used on any specific door and the keys can be easily copied or transferred to an unauthorized person. When a mechanical key is lost or the key holder is no longer authorized to use the protected area, the locks must be re-keyed. Electronic access control uses computers to solve the limitations of mechanical locks and keys. A wide range of credentials can be used to replace mechanical keys. The electronic access control system grants access based on the credential presented. When access is granted, the door is unlocked for a predetermined time and the transaction is recorded. When access is refused, the door remains locked and the attempted access is recorded. The system will also monitor the door and alarm if the door is forced open or held open too long after being unlocked.

When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential’s information, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliable processor. The control panel compares the credential's number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transaction log to a database. When access is denied based on the access control list, the door remains locked. If there is

a match between the credential and the access control list, the control panel operates a relay that in turn unlocks the door. The control panel also ignores a door open signal to prevent an alarm. Often the reader provides feedback, such as a flashing red LED for an access denied and a flashing green LED for an access granted .The above description illustrates a single factor transaction. Credentials can be passed around, thus subverting the access control list. For example, Alice has access rights to

the server room but Bob does not. Alice either gives Bob her credential or Bob takes it; he now has access to the server room. To prevent this, two-factor authenticationcan be used. In a two factor transaction, the presented credential and a second factor are needed for access to be granted; another factor can be a PIN, a second credential, operator intervention, or a biometric input.

There are three types (factors) of authenticating information :

?something the user knows, ega password, pass-phrase or PIN

?something the user has, such as smart card

?something the user is, such as fingerprint, verified by biometric measurement.

Passwords are a common means of verifying a user's identity before access is given to information systems. In addition, a fourth factor of authentication is now recognized: someone you know, where another person who knows you can provide a human element of authentication in situations where systems have been set up to allow for such scenarios. For example, a user may have their password, but have forgotten their smart card. In such a scenario, if the user is known to designated cohorts, the cohorts may provide their smart card and password in combination with the extant factor of the user in question and thus provide two factors for the user with missing credential, and three factors overall to allow access. Now, as people's living standards improve and technology advances, more and more local needs of access control system such as residential entrance, garage entrance, the entrance and other public places. Many different types of access control system; because it has different characteristics, so do not use the place, IC card access control system because of its higher security, better convenience and cost-effective access control system into the

mainstream. IC card technology is currently widely used in various industries, particularly public transport, wireless communications, identification, financial transactions and security and defense industries. Access control system through the import and export control, limiting staff and vehicles entering controlled areas, to ensure that controlled regional security. This study focuses on the underground garage access control system, which the requirements of the access control system with a clear direction, this design refers to radio frequency technology, the use of computer control of the IC card reader for reading and writing. ACCESS database software used to implement software system database services; using Visual Basic6.0 to design software with which the various common controls designed to log basic information, equipment management, card management, query management, system management a window Body. The IC access control system software with easy to use, simple features, the operator does not

need a professional computer operating level.

Credential

A credential is a physical/tangible object, a piece of knowledge, or a facet of a person's physical being, that enables an individual access to a given physical facility or computer-based information system. Typically, credentials can be something you know (such as number or PIN), something you have (such as an access badge), something you are (such as a biometric feature) or some combination of these items. The typical credential is an access card, key fob, or other key. There are many card technologies including magnetic stripe, bar code, Wiegand , 125 kHz proximity, 26 bit card-swipe, contact smart cards, and contactless smart cards. Also available are

key-fobs which are more compact than ID cards and attach to a key ring. Typical biometric technologies include fingerprint, facial recognition, iris recognition, retinal scan, voice, and hand geometry.

Access control system components

An access control point, which can be a door, turnstile, parking gate, elevator, or other physical barrier where granting access can be electronically controlled. Typically

the access point is a door. An electronic access control door can contain several elements. At its most basic there is a stand-alone electric lock. The lock is unlocked by an operator with a switch. To automate this, operator intervention is replaced by a reader. The reader could be a keypad where a code is entered, it could be a card reader, or it could be a biometric reader. Readers do not usually make an access decision but send a card number to an access control panel that verifies the number against an access list. To monitor the door position a magnetic door switch is used. In concept the door switch is not unlike those on refrigerators or car doors. Generally only entry is controlled and exit is uncontrolled. In cases where exit is also controlled a second reader is used on the opposite side of the door. In cases where exit is not controlled, free exit, a device called a request-to-exit (RTE) is used. Request-to-exit devices can be a pushbutton or a motion detector. When the button is pushed or the motion detector detects motion at the door, the door alarm is temporarily ignored while the door is opened. Exiting a door without having to electrically unlock the door is called mechanical free egress. This is an important safety feature. In cases where the lock must be electrically unlocked on exit, the request-to-exit device also unlocks the door.

Access control topology

Access control decisions are made by comparing the credential to an access control list. This lookup can be done by a host or server, by an access control panel, or by a reader. The development of access control systems has seen a steady push of the lookup out from a central host to the edge of the system, or the reader. The predominate topology circa 2009 is hub and spoke with a control panel as the hub and the readers as the spokes. The lookup and control functions are by the control panel. The spokes communicate through a serial connection; usually RS485. Some manufactures are pushing the decision making to the edge by placing a controller at the door. The controllers are IP enabled and connect to a host and database using standard networks.

Types of readers

Access control readers may be classified by functions they are able to perform:

?Basic (non-intelligent) readers: simply read card number or PIN and forward

it to a control panel. In case of biometric identification, such readers output ID number of a user. Typically Wiegand protocol is used for transmitting data to the control panel, but other options such as RS-232, RS-485 and Clock/Data are not uncommon. This is the most popular type of access control readers. Examples of such readers are RF Tiny by RFLOGICS, Prox Point by HID, and P300 by Far pointe Data.

?Semi-intelligent readers: have all inputs and outputs necessary to control door hardware (lock, door contact, exit button), but do not make any access decisions. When a user presents a card or enters PIN, the reader sends information to the main controller and waits for its response. If the connection to the main controller is interrupted, such readers stop working or function in a degraded mode. Usually semi-intelligent readers are connected to a control panel via an RS-485 bus. Examples of such readers are InfoProx Lite IPL200 by CEM Systems and AP-510 by Apollo.

?Intelligent readers: have all inputs and outputs necessary to control door hardware, they also have memory and processing power necessary to make access decisions independently. Same as semi-intelligent readers they are connected to a control panel via an RS-485 bus. The control panel sends configuration updates and retrieves events from the readers. Examples of such readers could be InfoProx

IPO200 by CEM Systems and AP-500 by Apollo. There is also a new generation of intelligent readers referred to as "IP readers". Systems with IP readers usually do not have traditional control panels and readers communicate directly to PC that acts as a host. Examples of such readers are PowerNet IP Reader by Isonas Security Systems, ID08 by Solus has the built in webservice to make it user friendly, Edge ER40 reader by HID Global, LogLock and UNiLOCK by ASPiSYS Ltd, and BioEntry Plus reader by Suprema Inc .

Some readers may have additional features such as LCD and function buttons for data collection purposes (i.e. clock-in/clock-out events for attendance reports), camera/speaker/microphone for intercom, and smart card read/write support.

Access control readers may also be classified by the type of identification technology.

Attribute-based access control

In attribute-based access control (ABAC), access is granted not based on the rights of the subject associated with a user after authentication, but based on attributes of the user. The user has to prove so called claims about his attributes to the access control engine. An attribute-based access control policy specifies which claims need to be satisfied in order to grant access to an object. For instance the claim could be "older than 18" . Any user that can prove this claim is granted access. Users can be anonymous as authentication and identification are not strictly required. One does however require means for proving claims anonymously. This can for instance be achieved usinganonymous credentials or XACML (extensible access control markup language).

门禁监管系统外文翻译(含原文)access control system

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