VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

Interior Trim Components

Metrological Evaluation of Color and Gloss Level Visual Evaluation of Chrome Surfaces

Previous issues

VW 50190: 2000-11, 2006-10Changes

The following changes have been made compared with VW 50190: 2006-10:–

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

Standard completely revised

Group Standard

VW 50190

Issue 2011-01

Class. No.:50202


colorimetrics, interior trim, color constancy, color difference, sample standard, original standard, gloss level, chrome surface

Verify that you have the latest issue of the Standard before relying on it.

This electronically generated Standard is authentic and valid without signature.

The English translation is believed to be accurate. In case of discrepancies, the German version is alone authoritative and controlling.

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

Page 1 of 18

Confidential. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be provided to third parties or reproduced without the prior consent of the Standards Department of a Volkswagen Group member.

This Standard is available to contracting parties solely via the B2B supplier platform http://www.360docs.net/doc/a472ca40a300a6c30c229f72.html.

? Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft



This standard defines the requirements for color deviations and the measurement and evaluation conditions for the use of technical instruments to determine color differences on components of the vehicle interior trim. It applies to the sample and production monitoring of the following materials:Solid-colored and non-luminescent textiles –Insensitive to stroking, without structure –Insensitive to stroking, with structure –Sensitive to stroking, without structure

Plastic parts

–With grained surfaces (leather grain, fine structure, etc.)

–With painted surfaces (soft-touch paint, decorative paint, etc.)–Slush part, foam film, PU hard foam (dashboard area, sun visor)Painted metal parts (exception: parts painted in body color)Leather (genuine leather and leatherette)Definitions

Styling release sample

Color idea released by the Styling Department. The styling release sample is a colorimetric reference and provides the basis for the original standard and for the sample standards.Sample standard

Sample standard for the Volkswagen brand

Reproduction of the styling release sample with regard to color, gloss, feel, texture, and grain in the form of sample sheets, finished part sections, or entire finished parts.Sample standards are used for visual sampling purposes.Sample standard for the Audi brand

The painted sample standard serves as reference for the visual and colorimetric evaluation of all surfaces. This painted sample standard for color consists of a painted DIN A5 plastic panel. It serves as visual and colorimetric reference. The visual impression, however, predominates. Sample stan‐dards for materials such as , e.g., leather are used only as a reference for structure and feel.Original tone

Computed mean value of the absolute color coordinates of all (maximum 300) sample standards.Original standard

The original standard is the sample standard that is closest to the computed original tone. It serves as the exclusive colorimetric reference.

1 2 2.1

2.2 2.2.1




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Finished part sample

Complex part which may consist of different materials with different surfaces (e.g., steering wheel,overhead console, door trim panel)Solid color

Solid-color surfaces are surfaces whose overall visual impression is of a single color.Insensitive to stroking

Textiles are insensitive to stroking if they do not exhibit any visually discernable contrast differences when stroked by hand.Sensitive to stroking

Textiles are sensitive to stroking if they exhibit visually discernable contrast differences when stroked by hand (e.g., velours, tufted fabrics, Alcantara).Structures

Structures are embossments and consistent seam contours that create different pile heights in places,thus producing visually discernable contrast differences.Gloss level

Also referred to as surface gloss. Describes the reflection properties of surfaces and materials.Specified in metrological terms in gloss units (GU).Description

Color constancy according to VW 50190.

Requirements General requirements

A plausibility test of the metrologically determined limits for visual acceptance, which is defined by Volkswagen AG during advance engineering, is used as the basis for the metrological tolerances.Revisions may be made in the production phase due to technical influencing factors.The supplier is required to monitor the process using statistical process control.

Components must be measured by the supplier without exception and delivered with the corre‐sponding report. In addition, the measured values must be checked for plausibility regarding the visual impression (even when the metrological evaluation yields an OK result).

Without exception, all metrological and visual evaluations are conducted under both the D65 (day‐light) and F11 (artificial light) standard illuminants. The values must be recorded accordingly in the test reports and measurement reports.

In any case, the colorimetric evaluations are carried out in consideration of the corresponding gloss levels. These levels are to be entered in the test and measurement reports as well.

2.5 2.6






4 4.1

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For colorimetric evaluations of unpainted plastic parts, the semi-crystalline sample standard is always used as a reference, irrespective of the material.

For colorimetric evaluations of leather, the leatherette variant is always used as a reference.The fluctuation range of the color values from 10 individual measurements must not exceed ± 0,15 CIELAB units (exception: ΔL*).

On principle, the evaluation is subject to visual acceptance in as-installed position.

The standard tolerance values specified in this standard serve as a target value at the start of the sampling phase. Different values are possible depending on the material and the color variant. If there are deviating tolerance values, they will be noted in the appropriate Technical Supply Specification (TL), drawing, or sample standard, or communicated to the testing parties. If no deviating tolerance values have been agreed upon, the specifications in this standard apply.

If a color standard does not feature the relevant grain, use of the alternative grains from Table 1 is recommended for the colorimetric evaluation.

Table 1



1st Alternative

2nd Alternative

K43K31-K86K31-K30K31-K41K31-K24K31-K64K09K9A K8A K09K9A K9A K09-K08K09K9A K3A K09K9A K2G K09K9A K2K K09K9A K50K09K9A K77K85-K3D



For the Audi brand, the color tolerances are always indicated on the back of the color sample stan‐dards (see Appendix A for examples). The gloss specifications must be obtained from the I/GQ-33representative in charge of the component ("Gloss list"). Depending on material and installation po‐sition, exceptions can be agreed upon with the I/GQ-33 representative in charge of the component if this is required for the visual acceptance. The visual impression in installed position takes precedence over the measurement in any case.

Hence, the tolerances indicated in Section 4.2 are not binding for Audi AG.

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Tolerance specifications

Three deviation ranges are specified:–"OK" = (grade 1) = release

–"Conditionally OK" = (grade 3) = Quality assurance control limit, may be used conditionally with

deviation permit (AWE)

–"Not OK" = (grade 6) = rejection

The second decimal place of delta values is rounded as follows: < 5 = round down; ≥ 5 = round up.Tolerances for sampling of textiles that are insensitive to stroking with and without structure (e.g., headliner decoration, solid-colored upholstery materials)

See Table 2.

Table 2

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| ≤ 0,70,8 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 0,9|ΔL*| ≥ 1,0|Δa*| ≤ 0,30,4 ≤ |Δa*| ≤ 0,5|Δa*| ≥ 0,6|Δb*| ≤ 0,3

0,4 ≤ |Δb*| ≤ 0,5

|Δb*| ≥ 0,6

Tolerances for sampling of textiles that are sensitive to stroking without structure (e.g.,load compartment trim, carpets)

See Table 3.

Table 3

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| ≤ 0,90,8 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 1,2|ΔL*| ≥ 1,3|Δa*| ≤ 0,30,4 ≤ |Δa*| ≤ 0,5|Δa*| ≥ 0,6|Δb*| ≤ 0,3

0,4 ≤ |Δb*| ≤ 0,5

|Δb*| ≥ 0,6

Basic tolerance for the sampling of non-textile components or components with non-textile surfaces (color grouping according to interior trim colors)

Black colors (e.g., Satin Black; Titanium Black; Anthracite) and brown colors (e.g., Natural Brown; Walnut; Tobacco; Sevilla, Buffalo)

See Table 4.

Table 4

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| < 0,350,35 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 0,45|ΔL*| > 0,45|Δa*| < 0,250,25 ≤ |Δa*| ≤ 0,35|Δa*| > 0,35|Δb*| < 0,25

0,25 ≤ |Δb*| ≤ 0,35

|Δb*| > 0,35

4.2 4.2.1



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Gray colors (e.g., Art Gray; Pearl Gray; Classic Gray; Moon Rock; Seashell; St. Tropez)

See Table 5.

Table 5

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| < 0,450,45 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 0,55|ΔL*| > 0,55|Δa*| < 0,250,25 ≤ |Δa*| ≤ 0,35|Δa*| > 0,35|Δb*| < 0,25

0,25 ≤ |Δb*| ≤ 0,35

|Δb*| > 0,35

Beige colors (e.g., Pure Beige; Sun Beige; Corn Silk; Latte Macchiato; Nougat; Nutria Beige) and blue colors (e.g., Navy Blue; Petrol)

See Table 6.

Table 6

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| < 0,450,45 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 0,55|ΔL*| > 0,55|Δa*| < 0,250,25 ≤ |Δa*| ≤ 0,35|Δa*| > 0,35|Δb*| < 0,35

0,35 ≤ |Δb*| ≤ 0,45

|Δb*| > 0,45

Green colors (e.g. Reed Green, Steppe Green)

See Table 7.

Table 7

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| < 0,450,45 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 0,55|ΔL*| > 0,55|Δa*| < 0,350,35 ≤ |Δa*| ≤ 0,45|Δa*| > 0,45|Δb*| < 0,25

0,25 ≤ |Δb*| ≤ 0,35

|Δb*| > 0,35

Red colors (e.g., Grenadine, Teak, Sioux; Deep Red: Truffle; Furioso, Terra Brown)

These are colors that are evaluated with the parameters Chroma "C*" and hue "H*" due to their position in the CIELAB color space.See Table 8.

Table 8

"OK " range (1)"Conditionally OK " range (3)

"Not OK " range (6)

|ΔL*| < 0,350,35 ≤ |ΔL*| ≤ 0,50|ΔL*| > 0,50|ΔC*| < 0,400,40 ≤ |ΔC*| ≤ 0,55|ΔC*| > 0,55|ΔH*| < 0,25

0,25 ≤ |ΔH*| ≤ 0,35

|ΔH*| > 0,35

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Tolerances as a function of the installation position, surface structure, and material group

The releasing party can assign a factor to the base tolerances specified in Tables 2 to 8, depending on the installation position and the surface of the component under test.

The following factors can be applied:

–Mold-integrated transitions in a directly visible area = base tolerance × 1

–Non-mold-integrated transitions as well as components in an area that is not directly visible =

base tolerance × 1,5

–For components that are produced from an amorphous material, the base tolerance for param‐

eter ΔL* can be multiplied by the factor 2,5, if comparison was made against the semi-crystalline color specification. This method can also be used when comparing leather and leatherette, pro‐vided that the leather sample has been compared against the leatherette specification.

–For painted components with a gloss level > 20,0 GU, the base tolerance for parameter ΔL* can

be multiplied by the factor 2,5.Tolerances and target values for the surface gloss (GU)

Scope: unpainted plastic parts in the interior area with grains K08 / K09 / K8A / K9A / K63 /K2G / K3D / K85

See Table 9.

Table 9

Trim color

Target value (GU)

OK tolerance

Titanium Black, Satin Black, Anthracite, Latte Macchiato,

Natural Brown, etc.2,0± 0,2Pearl Gray, Classic Gray, Moonrock, Art Gray, Seashell,

St. Tropez, etc.2,2± 0,2Pure Beige, Corn Silk, Desert Beige, Light Beige, etc.2,8

± 0,3

Scope: unpainted plastic parts in interior area with grains K31 and K77

See Table 10.

Table 10

Trim color

Target value (GU)

OK tolerance

Titanium Black, Satin Black, Anthracite, Latte Macchiato,

Natural Brown, etc.2,4± 0,3Pearl Gray, Classic Gray, Moonrock, Art Gray, Seashell,

St. Tropez, etc.2,6± 0,3Pure Beige, Corn Silk, Desert Beige, Light Beige, etc.2,8

± 0,3

Scope: unpainted plastic parts in the interior area with grain K29

See Table 11.

4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.






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Table 11

Trim color

Target value (GU)

OK tolerance

Titanium Black, Satin Black, Anthracite, Latte Macchiato,

Natural Brown, etc.3,4± 0,3Pearl Gray, Classic Gray, Moonrock, Art Gray, Seashell,

St. Tropez, etc.3,6± 0,3Pure Beige, Corn Silk, Desert Beige, Light Beige, etc.4,2

± 0,4

Gloss evaluation of assemblies and finished part samples

The target gloss values are defined by the Volkswagen Styling Department. The target values are noted on the sample standards. If these data are not present, the Tables 9 to 11 apply.

Component groups and finished part samples must always have a visually harmonious overall im‐pression. For components and individual parts of an assembly having the same surface structure (grain), the difference in gloss units (?GU) among the individual parts must be < 0,4. In this case,deviations from the target values may also be accepted.

Components with K31 grain and GU > 5,5 at a reflectometer angle of 60° must not be accepted on principle.Description/classification of gloss

See Table 12.

Table 12


GU (60° angle)High gloss 70 to 100Satin gloss 45 to 70Satin matt 20 to 45Matt

< 20

Metrological conditions for determining the gloss units (GU)

Gloss units are always measured at a reflection angle of 60°. The exception to this are high-gloss surfaces > 70 GU. They are compared with a reflection angle of 20°.Color matching: Color evaluation of component groups and finished part samples (ASSYs such as steering wheels, overhead consoles)

Component groups and finished part samples must always have a visually harmonious overall im‐pression.

In addition, the following applies to the finished part samples of the Volkswagen brand:

The maximum deviation between surfaces made of the same material must not exceed the base tolerance. This does not apply to areas not directly adjoining each other. In this case, it must be ensured that a maximum deviation of |ΔL*| 1,2 among all the materials is not exceeded. The individual materials must be visually acceptable according to the sample standard.








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In assemblies comprising components made of amorphous and/or semi-crystalline materials, the metrological deviations among the individual components must not exceed the tolerance.Reference specification

Unless otherwise agreed, the styling release sample will serve as the reference for the Volkswagen brand. Deviating from this rule, the original standard may also be used. The reference specification is documented on the sample standards. The respective compulsory references can be obtained from the laboratory.Finished part sample

In the case of design-related color effects, finished part sample standards must be created in agree‐ment with the Volkswagen Styling Department. For color constancy requirements, see Section 4.3.Test

Test equipment

–The colorimetric measurements are taken with a spectrophotometer (DIN 5033-4).

–For painted and grained plastic surfaces and painted metal parts, 45°/0 and the inverse is the suitable geometry.

–For high-gloss surfaces, with the exception of effect colors and paint coatings, the d/8° geometry can be used.

For testing textile surfaces, both the 45°/0 and the d/8° geometries and the inverses are suitable.If the d/8° geometries and the inverses are applied, the obtained values must be compared with those measured with the 45°/0 device which is preferred by the laboratory.

Since, for Audi AG parts, the painted sample standard serves as a color reference irrespective of the reflection behavior of different surfaces, measurements for Audi are generally carried out using the d/8° geometry, excluding gloss (SCE).

–The spectral resolution of the colorimeter must be no less than 5 nm and no greater than 10 nm.–The repeat accuracy of the measurement must be 0,07 ΔE* CIELAB.

–The spectral measurement range must include at least the range from 400 to 700 nm.

Standard illuminant D65 according to DIN 5033-7 (for the 10° standard observer) and artificial illuminant F11 according to DIN 6172 are used. These illuminants are also used for determining metamerism.

The gloss measurements are taken with a reflectometer according to DIN EN ISO 2813.

Calibration and inspections of test equipment

Prior to starting the measurement, the measuring device must be calibrated as specified by the man‐ufacturer of the device.

It must be ensured that the device has sufficient battery voltage since insufficient battery voltage can cause erroneous readings.

The test equipment must be inspected at regular intervals. To check the device constancy, the ΔL*-,Δa*-, and Δb* values of the currently measured test sheet must be compared to the originally mea‐sured data set for constancy. The data must be logged accordingly. A chromatic test standard with high color constancy may be used as a test sheet (ideally a chromatic, green color).



5 5.1 5.1.1

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To check the sample standard, a regular comparison measurement with respect to the L*, a*, b*values stored in the device, which were determined after receiving the sample standard, must be taken. The data must be logged accordingly.

All measurements required for calibration and inspection of test equipment must be carried out in the standard room climate.

If deviating values are determined, appropriate measures must be taken (equipment inspection or creation of a new sample standard).Specimen preparation

The specimens must be visually checked for inhomogeneities of the grain and the gloss level. The surface must be free of foreign matter. Areas showing damage not intentionally caused for testing purposes (e.g., scratch test, stress whitening) must be excluded from the measurement. Plastic parts and painted parts require no specific preparation for the test.

Textiles sensitive to stroking must be brushed prior to starting the measurement: first 1x against the pile direction (specimen appears darker), then 10x in the pile direction (specimen appears lighter and structure appears more homogeneous). A clothing brush with polyester bristles of approximately 18 mm length and 0,3 mm thickness must be used.

With needle-punched non-woven material, it is sufficient to stroke the material by hand, ensuring that the hand is clean and free of grease, first 1x against the pile direction (specimen appears darker),then 10x in the pile direction (specimen appears lighter and structure appears more homogeneous).Textiles that are not sensitive to stroking require no preparation.With multi-color fiber systems, possible spottiness must be ruled out.Measurement procedure General requirements

The measurement opening must be matched to the specific specimen shape. In the case of textile specimens, as large a measuring opening as possible must be selected.

Flat-plane surfaces with no pressure marks must be selected for the measurement areas.When selecting the measuring points, it must be ensured that they are distributed over the entire specimen surface and are at least 3 cm from the edge where possible.

For translucent textiles, an underground that corresponds to the backing of the finished part must be selected, or sample standards must be taken from the finished part. For these materials, the sample standards do not apply to products of pre-manufacturing processes.Measuring the sample standard

For the release of a sample standard, only a measuring device with an instrument agreement < 0,20 ΔE* CIELAB with respect to the Volkswagen master device must be used.

The sample standards of the following materials must be subjected to at least 5 individual measure‐ments distributed over the entire area of the defined surface (see Figure 1 and Figure 2): plastic sheets, painted plastic sheets, paint sheets, films, leather, and leatherette. For the painted sample standards of Audi AG, the grained area must be scanned. If the smooth surface is used as reference,this must be explicitly stated on the tolerance label on the back of the plastic panel (see Figure A.2).


5.3 5.3.1


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For textile sample standards with 45°/0 geometry, 10 individual measurements must be taken (see Figure 3) and the mean value must be determined. When using a device with a spherical shape, the specimen must be turned 90° 3 times each to determine one measured value (see Figure 4). In this case, the mean value is determined from 5 measured values.

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

During the evaluation of a specimen, sample standards will not be constantly re-measured, as errors

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

can be carried over from the handling of the sample standard, including soiling, to the evaluation of the specimen. A repeated measurement only serves as a quality check of the sample standard.

Figure 1 – Sample standard sheet with one de‐

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

fined surface

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

Figure 2 – Sample standard sheet with several

fields of defined surfaces

Figure 3 – 45°/0 - 0/45° (circular)

Figure 4 – d/8° - 8°/d sphere

Measurement on the component / on specimens

For plastic specimens (painted or unpainted), preferably 5 (but at least 3) individual measurements must be taken, distributed over the entire specimen surface.

For textile specimens, 10 individual measurements must be taken with 45°/0 geometry and the mean value determined. When using a device with a spherical shape, the specimen must be turned 90° 3times each to determine one measured value. In this case, the mean value is determined from 5measured values. The measuring points must be agreed upon in advance among the testing parties.


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Requirements for styling release samples, original standards, and sample standards for the Volkswagen brand

The original standards and sample standards must correspond to the styling release sample.The sample standards must be stored within a protective sleeve in a dark, dry, cool place in order to avoid visual changes. The visually relevant side must be covered with a sheet of rough, neutral gray recycling paper (e.g. Cycloprint ?) inside the protective sleeve.

The cover design and the labeling of the Volkswagen sample standards must comply with the re‐quirements of the Volkswagen Corporate Design in order to make them clearly identifiable as Volks‐wagen sample standards.

The sample standards of Audi AG must comply with the design shown in Appendix A:Figure A.1 Measurement on structure Figure A.2 Measurement on smooth surface Figure A.3 Sample standard cover DIN A5 format

Unless otherwise agreed, all original samples and sample standards must bear a label that specifies the following: sample standard, color code, color name, date of issue.

The measurement conditions (in the form of details on the measurement system used) and the de‐viation of the color coordinates according to CIELAB of the respective sample standard from the styling release sample/original standard must be documented within the framework of a laboratory test.

Minimum dimensions:

–for painted plastics without grain: DIN A6 format

–for painted and unpainted plastics with grain: DIN A5 format

–for all other materials (films, leatherette, leather, textiles): DIN A4 or DIN A5 format.

The specified tolerance limit for sample standards is approximately 1/3 of the specified production tolerance valid for these materials.Evaluation

The specimens are evaluated for color, gloss, structure, and surface, as well as for their workmanship.The color is evaluated metrologically (according to DIN 6174) and comparing the results against the measured data of the original standard.

The gloss level is tested by measuring the reflectometer value at a testing angle of 60° according to DIN EN ISO 2813 and documented in the test report. Unless otherwise agreed, the reference defined for the surface to be tested applies (see Section 4.4).Non-measurable parts

Visual evaluation against the sample standard according to Test Specification PV 3965 is performed following prior agreement or in case of components that are not measurable due to their shape.In case of visual evaluations, the deviation of the sample standard from the original standard must be taken into account.




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Evaluation of chrome surfaces in color VCR-3Q7 Aluminum Color evaluation

For the evaluation of chrome surfaces in color VCR-3Q7, the usual approach is the same as for other

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

surfaces, i.e., visual comparison of the component and original sample (see Figure 5).

Figure 5

Gloss evaluation

To determine the proper gloss or matt level, the component is brought close to the eye of the evaluator (see Figure 5). In so doing, the evaluator watches the reflection of his eye. If all details, such as the

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

eyelashes, eyebrows, and iris, are distinctly visible (see Figure 6), the chrome surface is too glossy

VW 50190_2011-01汽车内饰件比色测定

and does not meet the specification VCR-3Q7.

Figure 6 – Not OK The reflection is distinctly

visible = component is too glossy Figure 7 – OK Matt. Only a "blurry" reflection is


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Test report

For colors with chroma value C*ab < 5, the absolute values L*, a*, b* and the difference values ΔL*,Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*ab must be documented in the measurement report as the mean value of the ab‐solute values of the individual measurements based on the measured values of the original standard.For colors with a chroma value C*ab > 5, the absolute values C*ab , h ab and the difference values ΔC*ab and ΔH*ab must also be documented as the mean value of the absolute values of the individual measurements based on the measured values of the original standard.

The computed Δ values for L*, a*, b* or for L*, C*, H* must remain within a specified tolerance range according to this standard.

The reflectometer values of the specified reference must be documented in the test report as target values and those of the measured specimen as actual values.Gloss values are specified as absolute values in 1/10 GU (gloss units).

In addition, the following information must be included in the test report:–Company name

–Test device including the name of the manufacturer and the type designation –Measurement geometry and observer angle

–Name (color code), number and date of issue of the original standard, sample standard, and

styling sample used

–Precise material details and batch number for newly developed materials –Part designation and part number for first sample parts

–Additional observations and changes, such as color deviations on warp and/or weft threads,

differences in structure and feel; deviating grain depth; shiny areas –Agreed upon conditions that deviate from this standard Other applicable documents

The following documents cited in this Standard are necessary to its application.

Some of the cited documents are translations from the German original. The translations of German terms in such documents may differ from those used in this Standard, resulting in terminological inconsistency.

Standards whose titles are given in German may be available only in German. Editions in other languages may be available from the institution issuing the standard.PV 3965Decorative Surfaces on and in the Vehicle; Visual Color Matching accord‐ing to DIN EN ISO 3668

DIN 5033-4Colorimetry; spectrophotometric method

DIN 5033-7Colorimetry; measuring conditions for object colours

DIN 6172Special metamerism-index for pairs of samples at change in illuminant DIN 6174Colorimetric evaluation of colour coordinates and colour differences ac‐cording to the approximately uniform CIELAB colour space


Paints and varnishes - Determination of specular gloss of non-metallic paint films at 20°, 60° und 85°

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Sample standards of Audi AG

Figure A.1 – Measurement on structure

Appendix A (informative) Page 15

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Figure A.2 – Measurement on smooth surface

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Figure A.3 – Sample standard cover DIN A5 format

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Figure A.4 – Sample standard Audi, Cover NEW

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