测绘专业毕业设计中英文文献GIS

Definitions of GIS

“GIS” is an acronym meaning of Geographic Information System. In order to provide a good understanding of GIS, the following two definitions given by R hind (1989) and the United

States Geological Survey (USGS, 1997) respectively are presented first.

1 “a system of hard w are, software, a n d procedures designed to support the capture, management, manipulation , analysis, modeling, and display of spatially referenced data for solving complex planning an d management problems .”

2 “a co mputer system capable of assembling , storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information , i.e., data identified according to their location .”

GIS books generally adopt the ideas expressed by these two definitions. These two characteristics distinguish GIS from other types of information systems: The word “Geographic” in GIS explains “spatially” where things are such as the location of nations, states, counties, cities, schools, roads, rivers, lakes, and the list can go on and on. Spatially means where on the earth’s surface an object or feature is located. T his can be as simple as the latitude and longitude of a feature. T he geographic feature or object can be anything of interest

.“ Information” in GIS is the “data” or “attribute” information about specific features that we are interested in. The name of the feature, what the feature is, the location of the feature, and any other information that is important. An example could be the name of a city , w here it is located , ho w big it is in square feet ( area) , its population , its population in the past, and any other information that is important . “System” in GIS is the computer software that is written to help people analyze the data, look at the data and combine

it in various ways to show relationships or to create geographic models .

A GIS can be made up of a variety of software and hardware tools, as long as they are integrated to provide a functional geographic data processing tool.

As mentioned above, GIS is a computer system that links geographic information (where things are) with descriptive information (what things are) . Unlike a flat paper map, w here

“What you see is w hat you get”, a GIS can present m any layers of different information. To use a paper map, all you do is unfold it. Spread

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