英语3 Unite2 Text A(人物介绍)

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John Parker

(July 13, 1729 – September 17, 1775) was an American colonial farmer, mechanic and soldier who commanded the Lexington militia at the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775.


Early life

John Parker was born in Lexington, Massachusetts to Josiah Parker and Anna Stone. He was a grandson of Dea. Thomas Parker, founder of Reading, Massachusetts. John Parker's experience as a soldier in the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War) at the Siege of Louisbourg and the conquest of Quebec most likely led to his election as militia captain by the men of the town. He was dying from consumption (tuberculosis) on the morning of April 19, 1775 and had not quite five months left to live.




On April 19, 1775 the British commander in Boston Thomas Gage despatched an expedition of around 700 regulars under Colonel Francis Smith to search the town of Concord for hidden supplies and weapons. Lexington lay directly on the road that Smith's men took to reach Concord. 1775年4月19日在波士顿托马斯计英国指挥官派遣探险队在700的常客,上校弗兰西斯史密斯搜索隐藏的物资和武器康科德镇。列克星敦直接就躺在史密斯的人到达协和路。

When reports of the approach of a sizeable force of British soldiers reached Lexington overnight, men from the town and the surrounding area began to gather on the Common. Parker's Lexington company were not minutemen, as sometimes stated, but from the main body of Massachusetts Militia.[1] Parker was initially uncertain as to exactly what was happening. Conflicting stories arrived and as the British regulars had spent much of the winter engaged in harmless route marches through the Massachusetts countryside their exact intention was far from certain.

当英国士兵的相当大的力的方法报道达到列克星敦过夜,男人从镇及其周边地区开始聚集在普通。帕克的列克星敦公司不一,有时说,但从马萨诸塞州民兵的主体。[ 1 ]帕克最初不确定到底发生了什么。冲突的故事来作为英国正规军花了大半个冬天从事无害的路线游行通过马萨诸塞州农村确切的意图是远一些。When Smith became aware that the countryside had been alarmed and that resistance might be encountered, he sent a detachment of light infantry under Major John Pitcairn ahead of the main column. Pitcairn's advance guard reached Lexington first and drew up on the Common opposite Parker's men. Parker ordered his men to disperse to avoid a confrontation, but they either failed to hear him or ignored his instructions. Shortly afterwards firing broke out despite the fact that both sides had orders not to shoot. In the following fight eight militia were killed and ten wounded while one British soldier was wounded. The lopsided casualty list led to initial reports of a massacre, stories of which spread rapidly around the colony further inflaming the situation. There remains considerable doubt as to exactly what occurred during the fight at Lexington, and

a variety of different accounts emerged as to what had taken place and who had fired first. By the time Smith arrived with his main body of troops ten minutes later, he had trouble restoring order amongst his troops, who had chased fleeing militiamen into the fields around the town. Smith then decided, in spite of the fighting, to continue the march to Concord.

当史密斯意识到农村已警觉,可能遇到的阻力,他派一个支队的轻步兵在大约翰皮特克恩的主柱。皮特的前卫,达到了在列克星敦第一、共同对帕克的男人。帕克命令他的士兵分散来避免冲突,但他们都没有听到他或忽视他的指示。不久之后,射击爆发,尽管双方都被命令不得开枪。在接下来的战斗八民兵死亡和十人受伤当一个英国士兵受伤。片面的伤亡名单LED的大屠杀的故事最初的报道,迅速蔓延,周围的殖民地,这进一步加剧了局势。仍然有相当大的怀疑是什么发生在列克星敦的战争中,和各种不同的帐户成为发生了什么事,谁先开的枪。史密斯来到他的主要部队十分钟之后的尸体的时候,他遇到了麻烦,恢复秩序在他的部队,他追逃跑的民兵到小镇周围的田野。这时史密斯决定,尽管在战斗,继续进军康科德One of Parker's company, many years later, recalled Parker's order at Lexington Green to have been, "Stand your ground. Don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here." Paul Revere recalled it as having been "Let the soldiers pass by. Do not molest them without they begin first". During the skirmish Parker witnessed his cousin Jonas Parker killed by a British bayonet. Later that day he rallied his men to attack the regulars returning to Boston in an ambush known as "Parker's Revenge".



Parker and his men participated in the subsequent Siege of Boston. He was unable to serve in the Battle of Bunker Hill in June, and died of tuberculosis on September 17, 1775; aged 46.




John Parker and his wife, Lydia (Moore) Parker had seven children: Lydia, Anna, John, Isaac, Ruth, Rebecca and Robert. The Parker homestead formerly stood on Spring Street in Lexington. A tablet marks the spot as the birthplace of a grandson, Theodore Parker, a Unitarian minister, transcendentalist and abolitionist who also donated two of Captain Parker's muskets to the state of Massachusetts; one the light fowling-piece which he carried at Quebec and Lexington and one that he captured. They hang today in the Senate Chamber of the Massachusetts State House.



The statue known as The Lexington Minuteman was originally meant to represent the common Minuteman, but has now commonly become accepted as symbolizing Captain John Parker. It is by Henry Hudson Kitson and it stands at the town green of Lexington, Massachusetts. It was not based on Parker's appearance, as no known likenesses of him survive today and the figure is of a younger, healthy man which Parker at that point was not. One description of Parker was "a stout,

large framed man, of medium height, somewhat like his illustrious grandson, Theodore Parker, in personal appearance, but had a much longer face."


Levi Coffin

(28 Oct. 1789-16 Sept. 1877), abolitionist, temperance leader, and philanthropist, was born in New Garden, Guilford County, a descendant of Tristam Coffin, who came to America in 1642 and was one of nine purchasers of Nantucket from the Indians. Only son and seventh child of Levi and Prudence Williams Coffin, whose families had removed from Nantucket to New Garden before the American Revolution, Levi was taught largely by his father in their pioneer home. At twenty-one he studied briefly in some unknown school, and thereafter he taught and studied alternately for several years. In spite of the opposition of the elders, he joined the young Quakers of New Garden in 1818 in establishing a Sunday school in the new brick school adjoining the meeting house. This endeavor met with such success that he assisted in organizing other Sunday schools wherever he went. At about this time he joined the first manumission society in Guilford County, remaining an active member throughout its existence. In 1821 he and his cousin, Vestal Coffin, organized a school for slaves; there, on Sunday afternoons, with permission of the masters, they taught the elements of Christianity and reading of the Bible. The slaves were so interested that some of the masters became opposed, and the school was forbidden.


On 28 Oct. 1824, Coffin married Catherine White at Hopewell Church, Guilford County. In 1826 they moved to Newport (now Fountain City), Wayne County, Ind., where they opened a store. Finding themselves on a route along which escaped slaves passed to free territory, they joined the movement known as the Underground Railroad, helping to shelter such people and arrange transportation to Canada and elsewhere. Maintaining two teams, Coffin journeyed at night over secret roads, carrying fugitives to hiding places from which others carried them on to safety. Among those so rescued from slavery was a nameless woman who carried her infant across the broken ice of the Ohio River while pursued by bloodhounds, eventually reaching the Coffin home. She was described as Eliza Harris in the Harriet Beecher Stowe novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the phrase "Eliza crossing the ice" became a synonym for a narrow escape.



Coffin, known as president of the Underground Railroad, was a member of the Committee on Concerns of People of Color to Consider Their Education and was treasurer of funds to aid the poor and destitute. He was also active in the temperance movement. Feeling it wrong to use goods made by slave labor, he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1847, where for five years he operated a wholesale store selling products of free labor. He began work for the freedmen at the outbreak of the Civil War and devoted the rest of his life to that cause. In May 1864 he went to the British Isles; there he was instrumental in organizing the English Freedmen's Aid Society, which sent over one hundred thousand dollars in money and supplies to America in a single year. He was delegate to the International Anti-Slavery Society in Paris in 1867. The last years of his life he spent in writing his autobiography, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, published in 1876 by the Western Tract Society of Cincinnati, Ohio.


Josiah Henson

(June 15, 1789 –May 5, 1883) was an author, abolitionist, and minister. Born into slavery in Charles County, Maryland, he escaped to Upper Canada (now Ontario) in 1830, and founded a settlement and laborer's school for other fugitive slaves at Dawn, near Dresden in Kent County. Henson's autobiography, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself (1849), is widely believed to have inspired the character of the fugitive slave, George Harris, in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), who returned to Kentucky for his wife and escaped across the Ohio River, eventually to Canada.[1] Following the success of Stowe's novel, Henson issued an expanded version of his memoir in 1858, Truth Stranger Than Fiction. Father Henson's Story of His Own Life (published Boston: John P. Jewett & Company, 1858). Interest in his life continued, and nearly two decades later, his life story was updated and published as Uncle Tom's Story of His Life: An Autobiography of the Rev. Josiah Henson (1876).

约西亚汉森(1789年6月15日–1883年5月5日)是一位作家,废奴主义者,和部长。出世在查尔斯县,马里兰的奴隶,他逃上加拿大(今安大略)1830,并建立了定居点和劳动者的其他黎明逃亡奴隶的学校,在德累斯顿附近的肯特县。汉森的自传,约西亚汉森的生活,以前的奴隶,现在加拿大市的居民,讲述了自己(1849),被广泛认为是有启发的逃亡奴隶,人物乔治哈里斯,哈丽特比彻斯托的汤姆叔叔的小屋(1852),他回到肯塔基为他的妻子和逃到俄亥俄河,最终到达加拿大。[ 1 ]后,斯托夫人的小说的成功,汉森1858发行回忆录的扩展版本,事实比小说还离奇。爸爸汉森的他自己的故事(波士顿:约翰P.朱厄特出版公司,1858)。在他生活的兴趣继续,近二十年后,他的人生故事被更新和公布为汤姆叔叔的他的人生故事:牧师的自传。约西亚Henson(1876)。