2016专八mini-lecture

(2016)Models for Arguments Three models for arguments

●the first model for arguing is called (1) _________

--arguments are treated as war

--there is much winning and losing

--it is a (2) _____________ model for arguing

●the second model for arguing is arguments as proofs

--(3) warranted ___________

-- valid inferences and conclusions

-- no (4) ________ in the adversarial sense

●the third model for arguing is (5) ___________

--the audience is (6) __________ in the argument

-- arguments must (7)__________ the audience

Traits of the argument as war

●very dominant: it can shape (8) _________

●strong arguments are needed

●negative effects include

--(9) ____________ are emphasized

--winning is the only purpose

--this type of arguments prevent (1) ________

--the worst thing is (11)_________

●implication from arguments as war: (12) _________

--e.g., one providing reasons and the other raising (13) _______ --the other one is finally persuaded

Suggestions on new ways to (14) ________ of arguments

●think of new kinds of arguments

●change roles in arguments

●(15) ___________

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