人教版英语同义句句型转换附练习及答案

英语句型转换

(一).同义句转换知识点讲解(14种类型)

一、运用同义词(组)进行转换

用同义词或同义词组对原句中的某些词或词组进行替换(又称“词语替代法”),注意转换后的词或词组的词形变化要与句子其他成分相适应。如:

1. That day we could see flowers here and there.

That day we could see flowers __________.

分析:答案为everywhere。everywhere与here and there都表示“到处”。

2. The teacher always takes good care of the children in the school.

The teacher always_______ ______the children well in the school.

分析:答案为looks after。take good care of与look after…well都表示“好好照顾”。

3. The children are wearing beautiful clothes.

The children are_________beautiful clothes.

4. Every day,Yao Ming receives E-mails from thousands of basketball fans.

Every day,Yao Ming_________thousands of basketball fans.

5. Mr. Smith is working.

Mr. Smith is__________ __________.

答案:1. in 2. hears from 3. at work

二、运用反义词(组)的否定式进行转换

即用反义词或词组的否定式表达与原句相同的意思,主要考查学生对反义词(词组)的积累和换位思维的能力。如:

1. It’s clear that this visit is different from last time.

It’s clear that this visit is not th e___ ___last time.

分析:答案为same as。be different from意为“与……不同”;the same as意为“与……相同”,其否定式与be different from 同义。

2. I think wealth is less important than health.

I ___ think wealth is ___ important than health.

分析:答案为don’t,more。less important的意思是“没有(不及)……重要”;more important的意思是“(比)……更重要”,该结构与not连用,则表示“不比……更重要”。

3. Chinese is more popular than Japanese.

Japanese is__________popular__________Chinese.

4. The runner couldn't catch up with the others in the race.

The runner_________ __________the others in the race.

5. A computer is more useful than a VCD.

A VCD is not_________useful_________a computer.

答案:4. less, than 5. fell behind 6. as,as

另外,有的反义词即使不与否定词连用,而只需改变句子结构也可构成同义句。如:

He lent some money to his friend.

He friend ___ some money ___ him.

分析:答案为borrowed,from。borrow…from意为“向……借……”;lend…to意为“把……借给……”。两个结构意思相反,但若变换“借出者”与“借入者”的位置,则可转换为同义句。

三、运用不同语态进行转换

即运用主动语态与被动语态的变化来转换同义词,但此时要特别注意时态、动词一致性。如:

1. Everyone should give back his library books on time.

Library books should____ ____ ____ on time.

分析:答案为be given back。被动句中含有情态动词should,因此助动词用be。

2. It is widely accepted that more people use computers in the world today.

Computers ____ widely ___ in the world today.

分析:答案为are,used。computers是复数名词,助动词用are。

3. You must tidy your bedroom every day.

→Your bed room must be tidied every day.

4.The farm grows cotton.

→Cotton is grown on the farm.

四、非延续性动词与延续性动词的相互转换

即非延续性动词与延续性动词进行转换,此时往往会涉及时态的变化。如:

1. The manager left two hours ago.

The manager _____ ____ ____ for two hours.

分析:答案为has been away。leave为非延续性动词,不能与for two hours这样的一段时间连用,而改成be away这样的延续性动词后,则可连用一段时间。

2. The film began five minutes ago.

The film has been _____ _____ five minutes.

分析:答案为on for。has been提示时态是现在完成时态,“for+时间段”表示“持续(一段时间)”,常用在含有现在完成时态的句子里。

3. Mr Li joined the Party twenty years ago.

Mr Li _____ _____ _____ the Party for twenty years.

答案:has been in。短暂动词join,意为“参加、加入(组织,政党)”,不能与延续时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将join改成be in或be a member in…。

五、运用不同引语进行转换

即将直接引语变为间接引语或将间接引语转换成直接引语。此时还要注意相关时态、人称、动词、状语等相应的变化。如:

1. “I’ve found my wallet,” he said to me.

He _________ me that he _________ _________ his wallet.

分析:答案为told,had found。此题是将直接引语转换成间接引语。

2. “Did you see her last week?” he said.

He _______ _______ I had seen her the week _______.

分析:答案为asked if/ whether, before。此题是将疑问句的直接引语转换成间接引语。

六、运用简单句与复合句之间的转换

即将简单句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的简单句。(1).复合句化为简单句一般侧重于将从句变化为短语或词组,使句意简单明了。①用不定式、介词短语、名词短语、分词性短语等替换复合句中的句子;

②将宾语从句简化为“疑问词+不定式”;

③将so...that...,或such...that ...引导的状语从句简化为含有too...to ...,enough ...to...简单句;④将if 引导的状语从句简化为“祈使句,and(or)+ 一般将来时”的句子.

(2).必须注意的是,简单句变为复合句时,很多情况下是把宾语扩大为宾语从句,从句中使用一般将来时或“情态动词+动词原形”。如:

1. We didn’t go out for a walk because it was raining.

We didn’t go out for a walk _______ _______ the rain.

分析:答案为because of。将原因状语从句because it was raining改为表示原因的介词短语because of the rain。

2. He was so excited tha t he couldn’t go to sleep.

He was ______ _____ ______ go to sleep.

分析:答案为too excited to。将so…that…换成too…to…结构,原句的that从句为结果状语从句,改写句中的不定式仍表结果。

3. Now I will show you how to do the work.

Now I will show you ______ ______ ______ do the work.

分析:答案为how you can。即将原句中的“疑问词+不定式”结构转换成宾语从句。

4. You should put them back after you use them.

You should put them back _____ _____ them.

分析:答案为after using。即将after引导的状语从句改写为after引导的介词短语。

5.I hope that I can see you again.

→I hop e to see you again.

6.Please tell me where we show our tickets.

→Please tell me where to show our tickets.

7.If you don't hurry up, you'll miss the early bus.

→Hurry up, or you won't catch the early bus.

七、运用并列句与复合句之间的转换

即将并列句变成同义的复合句或将复合句变成同义的并列句。如:

1. Come on, or we’ll miss the early bus.

____ we ____ hurry, we’ll miss the early bus.

分析:答案为If,don’t。if引导条件状语从句。

2. The man gave us a talk last week. Now he will give us another talk this week.

The man _____ gave us a talk last week _____ _____ us another talk this week.

分析:答案为who/ that,will give。who/ that gave us a talk last week为定语从句,修饰先行词the man。

八、运用关联连词连接或合并句子

即运用关联连词both…and…,neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…等将两个简单句合并为一个简单句。此时要注意的是,b oth…and…连接两个主语时,谓语总是用复数,而neither…nor…,either…or…,not only…but also…连接两个主语时,谓语动词通常应与靠近的主语保持一致。如:

1. Tom can’t speak Japanese well and Jim can’t, either.

______ Tom ______ Jim can speak Japanese well.

分析:答案填Neither,nor。neither…nor…表示“……和……(两者)都不”,刚好与原句的两个否定结构的意思相吻合。

2. Alice has read the book and Peter has read it, too.

______ Alice ______ Peter have read the book.

分析:答案为Both,and。both…and…的意思是“……和……(两者)都”。

3. This store sells men’s shoes, and it also sells men’s clothes.

Thi s store sells ______ ______ men’s shoes ______ ______ men’s clothes.

分析:答案为not only,but also。表示“不仅……而且……”之意。

4.He hasn't been to France. She hasn't been to France, either.

→Neither he nor she has been to France.

5.The roon isn't very big. It can't hold a lot of people.

→This room isn't big enough to hold a lot of people.

6.Mrs Smith is my teacher. She is also my good friend.

→Mrs Smith is not only my teacher but also my good friend.

九、变成含有宾语从句的复合句

首先要判断所给句子是哪一类型(陈述句、特殊疑问句还是一般疑问句),然后确定所需要的连词,同时必须注意时态的对应和陈述句语序。

1.She missed us very much. She told us.

→She told us that she missed very much.

2.Is Mr Nobel a teacher? Could you tell me?

→Could you tell me if Mr Nobel is a teacher?

3.Where's the foreigner from? He asked.

→He asked where the foreigner is from.

十、用以it作形式主语的句型进行转换

不定式所表示的动作发出者一般是句子的主语,但有时却不是,这时不定式常会带上自己的逻辑主语,这一主语通常由介词for 引出。

1.He can finish the work easily.

→It is easy for him to finish the wo rk.

2.He found to sleep was very difficult.

→He found it was very difficult for him to sleep.

3.To learn English well is not easy.

→It is not easy to learn English well.

十一、利用某些典型句式或结构进行转换

这类典型结构如so…that…,too…to…,enough to,not…until…,so do I等。要在把握句意的基础上对原句进行概括表达,遇到困难要多换个角度去思考,需要反复推敲才行。如:

1. Jim wants to go boating and his parents want to go boating, too.

Jim wants to go boating, and ______ ______ his parents.

分析:答案为so do。句意为“……他的父母也一样(一样想去)”。

2. John went to bed after he finished his homework.

John ______ go to bed ______ he finished his homework.

分析:答案为didn’t,until。not…until意为“直到……才”。

特别提示:so...that...,too...to ...,enough ...to...是初中英语教材中三个重要的句型结构,在一定条件下它们可以互相转换。

①so...that...与enough ...to...的转换

当that 引导的从句是肯定的,从句主语与主句主语相同时,so...that...可转化为enough ...to...结构;若从句主语与主句主语不相同时,so...that...可转化为enough for sb. to...结构.

Tom is so old that he can go to school.

→Tom is old enoughto go to school.

The box is so light that the child can lift it.

→The box is light enough for the child to lift.

当that 引导的从句是否定的,从句主语与主句主语相同时,so...that...可转化为enough...to...否定结构;若从句主语与主句主语不相同时,so...that...可转化为enough for sb. to...否定结构,但须注意的是,转换后的形容词(副词)要用其相应的反义词。

The man is so old that he can't go to work.

→The man isn't youny enough to go to work.

The desk is so heavy that I can't move it.

→The desk isn't light enough for me to move.

②so...that...与too...to ...转换

当that 引导的从句是否定的,从句主语与主句主语相同时,so...that...可转化为too...to ...结构;若从句主语与主句主语不相同时,so...that...可转化为too...for sb. to ...结构。

He is so young that he can't go to school.

→He is too young to go to school.

The box is so heavy that I can't move it.

→The box is too heavy fo r me to move.

③enough ...to...与too ...to...转换

enough ...to...句式为否定式时,可以转换为too ...to...结构,但转换后的结构中too ...to...的形容词(副词)要用其相应的反义词。

He is not old enough to do the job.

→He is too young to do the job.

Tom didn't walk slowly enough for us to keep up with him.

→Tom walked too fast for us to keep up with him.

十二、用同义句改写

英语中有很多意义相同(相近)但结构不同的句型、句式,这些句型大多是学习的重点常见的有:①not as ...as ...与比较级的转换;②than any other 与最高级的转换;③when(after, before)引导的从句与not...until的转换;④瞬间动词(come, go, leave, buy , die, begin, borrow...)的过去时与含有一段时间状语的完成时的转换;⑤take, cost, spend, pay for的转换;⑥询问价格的几个句型的互相转换;⑦what 引起的感叹句与how 引起的感叹句的转换等。

She spent 30 dollars on the English -Chinese dictionary.

→The English -Chinese dictionary cost her 30 dollars.

→She paid 30 dollars for the English -Chinese dictionary.

→She spent 30 dollars buying the English -Chinese dictionary.

How clever the man is!

→What a clever man he is!

How old are you?

→What's your age?

W e came home when it was six o'clock.

→We didn't come home until/ before it was six o'clock.

十三、用派生词或一词多义改写

此类题型可采用“词类转化法”,利用某些派生词或词性相异的词组来代替原句中的某些成分,此时句子结构一般会随之发生一些变化。例如:

The snow was heavy last night.

→It snowed heavily last night.

The foreigners have visited the Great Wall.

→The foreigners have been on a visit to the Great Wall.

十四、用介词短语改写

My brother went to college when he was seventeen.

→My brother went to college at the age of seventeen.

Tommy didn't have breakfast and went to school.

→Tommy went to school without having breakfast.

I usually walk to school.

→I usually go to school on foot.

十五、形容词、副词三种等级之间的转换

e.g. Henry is taller than the other students in our class.

= Henry is the tallest student in our class.

此类题目需要学生能够熟悉形容词、副词的构成规律,能够灵活运用一些有关形容词和副词比较等级的句型结构,如:(1)more and more…,(2)the +比较级+of the two …; (3)The +比较级…, the +(另一词)比较级…。特别要清楚表示最高级范围的结构,如:(1)in+组织/单位,(2)of +与主语同类别的人或物。表示排除主语的结构,如:(10)the other +名词复数;(2)any other +名词单数。表示相同性质比较的结构,as+形容词/副词(原级)+as; not as/so …as….。解题时注意交换句子主语,用反义词进行改写;或者用比较级表示最高级含义。

十六、“祈使句+and/or …”结构与if 条件状语从句间的转换

e.g. If you run a little faster, you’ll catch up with your classmates.

= Run faster, and you’ll catch up with your classmates.

此类题目要注意句子的肯定与否定,正确使用and 和or。

十七、陈述句与感叹句及两种形式感叹句间的转换

e.g. The boy drew a very beautiful flower.

= How beautiful a flower the boy drew1

= What a beautiful flower the boy drew!

此类题目要求学生能够完全掌握what和how引导的感叹句的构成,并能灵活运用。

(二).句型转换专练(附答案)

A.将下列句子改为否定句。(每空一词)

1.They are cleaning the classroom.

They cleaning the classroom.

2.I can find my watch.

I find my watch.

3.She is wearing a sweater today.

She wearing a sweater today.

4.There are some bananas on the table.

There are bananas o n the table.

5. There is a bottle and a glass under the chair.

There ______ a bottle _____ a glass under the chair.

6. She can speak a little Chinese now.

She _______ _______ speak a little Chinese now.

7. He has tea in the afternoon.

He ______ ________ tea in the afternoon.

8. They know me very well.

They _____ _____ me very well.

9. My sister likes meat very much.

My sister ______ _____ meat very much.

10. I think he is right.

I ______ _______ he _______ right.

11. Please put these books in the box.

_____ _____ these books in the box.

12. I want some milk.

I ______ ________ _______ milk.

13. Go to the classroom.

______ _____ to the classroom.

14. There are some apples in the basket.

There ______ ______ apples in the basket.

15. They are watching TV now.

They _____ ______ watching TV now.

B.将下列句子改为一般疑问句。(每空一词)

1.There is a river in the picture.

a river in the picture?

2.There are some boys in the room.

boys in the room?

3.They are singing over there.

over there?

4.I am in Class Two.

in Class Two?

5. Tom and Jim stay in China now.

_____ Tom and Jim stay in China now?

6. He likes meat a lot.

_____ he ______ meat a lot?

7. Americans speak American English.

_______ Americans _______ American English?

8. The boy has many friends.

_______ the boy ______ many friends?

9. Lin Tao often does his homework at 7∶00.

______ Lin Tao often ______ his homework at 7:00?

10. He buys some eggs every week.

he eggs every week?

11. Miss Gao often buys things in the shop.

________ Miss Gao often ________ things in the shop?

12. Jim usually has breakfast at six in the morning.

________ Jim usually ________ breakfast in the morning?

13. Han Mei is doing her homework at home.

_______ Han Mei ______ her homework at home?

14. Lily and Lucy want some apples.

Lily and Lucy want apples?

15. They are buying a lot of things from the shop.

______ they ______ a lot of thongs from the shop?

C.对划线部分提问。(每空一词)

1.There are forty students in our class.

students in your class?

2.She is making cakes.

she ?

3.This is Jim's bedroom.

bedroom this?

4. The yellow coat is hers.

coat is hers?

5. This shirt is white.

is this shirt?

6. Tom can speak Chinese and English (对划线部分提问)

_______ language can Tom speak?

7. The twins come from the U.S.A(同上)

_____ _____ the twins come from?

8. I like these postcards very much.

_____ ______ you like these postcards?

9.I like the pictures in this book.

______ _______you like in this book?

10. We teach them English.

______ teach them English?

11. We go out on Sundays.

______ _______ you go out?

12. My sister likes bread very much.

_____ ______ your sister like bread?

13. She doesn't like rice or noodles at all.

_____ _____ she like at all?

14. The boy has many friends.

____ ______ friends _____ the boy ______?

15.There are nineteen students in my class.

______ _____ students are there in your class?

16. They like to eat different kinds of food.

______ ______ they ______ to eat?

17.I am learning English now.

______ ______ you _______ now?

18.They teach me Chinese at home.

_____ ______ they you English?

19.I learn Chinese at school.

_____ ______ you learn Chinese?

20.Our Chinese teacher's name is Joy Wang.

______ is your Chinese teacher’s name?

21. She likes to have rice for every meal.

______ ______ she ______ to have fro every meal?

22. I like the dining room very much because I like eating.

______ ______ you _____ dinning room very much?

23.They like to eat different kinds of food.

______ _____ they _____ to eat?

24.I usually go to school at this time.

______ ______ you usually ______ to school?

25.I want to finish my homework.

_____ ______ you want to ______?

26.He usually has lunch at 7∶00.

______ ______ does he _____ lunch?

27.They leave school at six o'clock.

______ _____ they ______ at six o’clcok?

28.Jim goes to school every day.

______ _______ Jim ________ every day?

29. Kate gets up at six in the morning on weekdays.

_____ ______ _______ Kate _____ up in the morning on weekdays?

30. He wants to eat some bread.

_____ _____ he ______ to eat?

31.The shop sells books and school things.

the shop ?

32.Tom has eggs and meat for lunch.

Tom for lunch?

33. The fish is six yuan a kilo.

the fish?

34.Mr Read would like two kilos of fish?

_____ kilos of fish Mrs Read ?

35.I want to buy two kilos of meat.

you want ?

36. We can buy many things in the shop.

buy many things?

37. My sister wants three pears.(提问)

________ ________ pears does ________ sister want?

38.The man on the bike is Kates father.

________ ________ is Kate's father?

39.The children are listening to the teacher.

______ ______ the children ______?

40. I like China very much.

____ _____ you ______ China?

D.同义句转换(每空一词) :

1. Bike is short for bicycle.

Bike is_________ _________ _________saying bicycle.

2. It took Mary an hour to do her homework last night.

Mary_________an hour_________her homework last night.

3. They made him work 12 hours a day.

He_________ _________ _________ _________ 12 hours a day.

4. I am a League member. He is a League member,too.

_________he_________I _________League members.

5. He is so young that he can't join the army.

He is_________young_________the army.

6. The player smiled and jumped into the river.

The player jumped into the river_________ _________ _________.

7. Mr. Brown left London six years ago.

Mr.Brown_________ _________ _________ _________London for six years.

8. The earth is bigger than the moon.

The moon is_________ _________ _________ _________the earth.

9. He is one of my friends.

He is a friend _________ _________.

10. The teacher told us that we should not meet at the school gate.

The teacher told us_________ _________ _________at the school gate.

11. I have something to tell you. It's interesting.

I have_________ _________ to tell you.

12. I saw them playing basketball there.

I saw_________they_________ _________basketball there.

13. Listen carefully,and you'll become more interested.

_________ _________listen carefully, you'll become more interested.

14. She has been a nurse for five years.

It_________ _________ _________ _________she became a nurse.

15. All are here, but our English teacher isn't.

_________is here_________our English teacher.

16. It was so interesting a film that all of us saw it twice.

It was_________ _________interesting_________that all of us saw it twice.

17. Mother was busy with some housework when I got home.

Mother was_________ _________some house-work when I got home.

参考答案:

A. 1. are not 2. can not 3. is not 4. not any 5. isn’t, or 6. can not 7. doesn’t have 8. don’t know 9. doesn’t like 10. don’t think, is

11. Don’t put 12. don’t want any 13. Don’t go 14. aren’t any 15. are not

B. 1. Is there 2, Are there any 3. Are they singing 4. Are you 5. Do 6. Does, like 7. Do, speak 8. Does, have 9. Does, do

10. Does, buy any 11. Does, buy 12. Does, have 13. Is, doing 14. Do, any 15. Are, buying

C.1. How many, are there 2. What is, doing 3. Whose, is 4. Which 5. What colour 6. What 7. Where do 8. How do 9. What do

10. Who 11. When do 12. How does 13. What does 14. How many, does, have 15. How many 16. What do, like

17. What are, doing 18. Where do 19. Where do 20. Who 21. What does, like 22. Why do, like 23. What do, like

24. When do, go 25. What do, do 26. What time, have 27. What do, do 28. What does, do 29. What time does, get

30. What does, want 31. What does, sell 32. What does, have 33. How much is 34. How many, would, like

35. How much meat do, to buy 36. Where can you 37. How many, your 38. Which man 39. What are, doing 40. How do, like

D.1. another way of 2.spent;on/doing 3. was made to work 4. Both;and;are 5. too;to join 6. with a smile 7. has been away from

8. not as/so big as 9. of mine 10. not to meet 11. something interesting 12. that;were playing 13. If you

14. is five years since 15. Everyone/Everybody,except/but 16. such an;film 17. busy doing

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