小升初小学英语阅读理解解题技巧+专项训练练习题(含答案解析)

部编小升初小学英语阅读理解解题技巧

阅读理解是综合读者各方面知识的过程,要想快捷、准确地理解所阅读的语篇,考生要明

确阅读目的提高阅读层次和技能,加强理解过程的训练,学习中要注意运用5种技巧,提

高自己解答阅读理解题的能力。

摒弃6大不良阅读习惯

大家可以对照自己是否有以下影响阅读效率的不良习惯。

1.读得非常慢,非常仔细,不相信自己能全部理解所读的东西。

2.阅读时嘴唇和舌头在动。

3.头随着文字符号的位置左右移动。

4.经常回读,读过的东西又重新读一遍、甚至几遍。

5.读什么样体裁的文章都用一样的速度。

6.有很多单词不认识,或不知道它在此处的含义。

如果对上述的问题回答多数是肯定的,那你确实需要提高阅读技能。如果只有一两项回答

是肯定的,那你就需要针对这一两种不良习惯寻找有效的解决方法。

实际解题中,不能盲目地应用快读“技巧”,而要根据不同情况调整阅读速度。如对场景、

人物性格、人物心理刻画要细读。

扩大词汇量

有限的词汇量必然影响阅读能力的提高。生词的含义只有在上下文中才能完全展现出来,

并易于被记住、理解和掌握。换句话说,是上下文给一个词以特定的含义,而这个特定的

含义有时是字典无法提供的。

不少教师鼓励学生背句子、段落、整篇文章,都是出于要学生在上下文中理解并掌握词汇

和短语。

带着6个问题阅读

我建议大家带着下列6个问题阅读:

1.作者要表达的主要思想。

2.文章的主要内容和次要内容,并能把他们区分开来。

3.了解并记住文章中最重要的内容。

4.文章结构及事件发生的时间、空间顺序。

5.作者的观点、意

图、写作风格及其偏见等。 6.用自己的阅历和知识对文章进行分析、评价。

读完一篇文章后,想一想上述所列出的6项阅读问题,你能把握几项。阅读是一个判断、

推理、归纳、总结的过程,我们需要把分散于文章中的各种信息联系起来,经过必要的判

断、推理,得出自己对文章的认识。

遇到生词要会猜

阅读中遇到生词,最好的方法是通过上下文猜测。以下几条建议可帮助你猜测词义:

1.看看上下文中有没有生词的另一种说法,即找同义词。有时下文会对一个词做解释,或

者提供一些暗示。

2.看词性,判断其是名词、动词、形容词、副词或其他词类。

3.分析生词的构成,尤其是词的前缀和后缀。英语中很多词都是加前缀和后缀而来的。比

如根据前缀re-和后缀-ity的含义,你就可以准确地猜出rewrite和similarity的意思。

4.看看同一生词是否在上下文的其他地方出现,把两处的语境相比较,也许更能准确地猜

出词义。

5.充分利用你阅读内容中已有的知识。利用文中所附的插图等直观线索猜测词义

推论出文中隐含意思

作者往往不直接说出文章的意思,而是含蓄地表达。阅读文学作品经常需要推论。有时一

句话的含义需要推论,有时整个文章的含义需要推论。以下几条建议可以帮助你推论:

1.结合作者的思想、观点及其创作目的、创作背景进行推论。

2.寻找作者直接陈述的诸多事

件之间的联系。 3.仔细体会一些重要词的含蓄意义及其感情色彩。比如politician和

statesman的意思都是“政客家”,但前者有贬义的色彩,即“政客”,后者则没有。 4.从作者

的语气、语调、措辞等文体特征,读出作者的“言外之意”。5.得出推论后,尽量从上下文

中寻找证据。 6.充分利用自己各方面的知识,把文章中所述的事件和自己的阅历或熟悉的

事情联系起来思考。

例题

Sun: Hello, I’m the sun. I’m strong. I give light to the earth. I’m No.1.

Moon: Hello, I’m the moon. At night Give light to the earth. I’m stronger. I’m No.1 Sun: Your light is from me, isn’t it?

Cloud: Don’t quarrel. When I am over the earth, you can’t give light to the earth. So everyone has

his strong point. We are one family.

Sun Moon: Yes, you’re right. We are one family. We should help each other and take care of each

other.

根据短文内容判断正(T)误(F)

( )1. The sun gives light to the earth at night.

( )2.The moon gives light to the earth at night.

( )3. The sun’s light is not from the earth.

( )4. When the cloud is over the earth, the sun can give light to the earth, too.

( )5. They should help each other.

评析:第1题根据SUN所陈述的内容可以得出结论,此题目是错误的.即使不从文章中找,根

据常识我们都知道太阳总是在白天出现,它只能在白天给我们带来光芒.第2题月亮在晚上带

给我们光亮,这个题目是正确的,根据MOON所述的内容。第3题太阳的光芒不是从地球

上获得的. The sun gives light to the earth.第4题根据CLOUD 陈述内容判断此题目为错误的,

第5题根据最后三人得出的结论,此题目是正确的.答案: F T T F T.

做题技巧:

阅读理解一般分为故事幽默类、说明、科普类等。

1故事幽默类一般前面都在为幽默做铺垫,只有读到最后才能显现出幽默之出来。

这类短文一般难度不大,认真阅读,仔细选择,问题都可以解决,如Write a Letter to Mary,

A Dirty Boy, On the Bus 等

2小学的说明,科普类短文都十分浅显,只要具备一点科普常识都会读懂的,如,Time, the Spring

Festival .等,即使文章较长,问题也十分明显,从文中都能找到答案.

基础训练

一.根据短文内容选择答案.

1

Sam is very good at school, but he is not clean. His face and hands are often dirty. He washes

them with water only. He does not use soap(肥皂).

Sam has an uncle. One day his uncle goes to see him. He looks at him and says, “Sam, I know what you ate for breakfa st this morning.”

“What?” Sam looks at his uncle and says.

“Eggs” says his uncle, “Your face and mouth tell me that.”

前天)!”“You are wrong, uncle!” says Sam, “Not today or yesterday, but the day before yesterday ( ( )(1).Who is Sam?

A. He is English.

B. He is a student. C He is a young pioneer. D He is a teacher.

( )(2) What’s the Chinese for “dirty”?

好的”

坏的“ D It’s “

干净的” C It’s “

脏的“. B It’s “

A. It’s “

( )(3) What’s on Sam’s face and mouth?

A Eggs.

B Soap

C Water

D Bread

( )(4) Which of these is not wrong?

A Sam doesn’t wash his face and hands every day.

B. The uncle thinks the boy ate eggs last morning.

C Sam doesn’t like eggs at all.

D. Sam doesn’t know his uncle.

2

Hen(母鸡): There is some rice here. Eat it like this, my children.

Chickens: Like this, Mother?

Hen: Yes, that’s right, good.

Eagle(鹰): There are some chickens here. I want to eat them.

Hen: Don’t worry, my children. Let me do with it.

Eagle: Can you let me eat some chickens, Mrs. Hen?

猎人)near here.

Hen: No, you can’t. There is a hunter(

Eagle: I must go now.

Hen: Let’s go home, my children.

Chickens: All right.

( )(1) The chicken likes to eat the ____.

A hen

B rice

C chicken

D his children

( )(2) The hen _____look after her children.

A can

B can’t

C is

D isn’t

() (3)______saves the chickens.

A hunter.

B The hen

C The eagle

D A man

( )(4)The eagle can’t eat_____ at last.

A chickens

B go.

C the hunter

D the hen

小学英语阅读方法

四年级考试中开始出现阅读理解,很多孩子为此犯愁,下面我就阅读理解提高给家长提供

些方法,以便在今后的学习中更好的引导孩子。

1.激发兴趣,树立自信。

家长可以引导他们读一些简易的英文报刊或书籍,如:《英语辅导报》(小学版)、《英

语画刊》、《英语周报》(小学版)等等。另外,家长还可以让孩子把他们在课外读到的

小故事、笑话等讲出来,与大家共分享。通过阅读,孩子能学到许多课本上没有的知识,

求知欲会有所增强,知识面会得到拓宽。

2. 引导学生进行阅读。

小学阅读理解不需要太在乎语法问题,答题时只要根据文章意思进行判断,其实四年级的

阅读理解中许多答案可以在原文中找出来,。在一般情况下,做阅读理解题可以引导孩子

采用以下方法:

⑴先通读全文再答题,或先看看需要完成的任务再读全文。

⑵注意培养孩子根据上下文猜词的能力。小学生往往一遇到生词就束手无策,首先想到问

老师或同学,其次是查阅工具书,而很少会根据上下文、背景知识、文化意识等去理解猜

出词义。长此以往,孩子就会产生依赖思想,抑制了他们阅读能力的发展、阅读速度的提

高。这就要求家长在孩子做阅读理解题时,有意识地限制孩子查阅工具书,鼓励孩子大胆

猜词。

遇到生词要会猜

阅读中遇到生词,最好的方法是通过上下文猜测。以下几条建议可帮助你猜测词义:

1.看看上下文中有没有生词的另一种说法,即找同义词。有时下文会对一个词做解释,或

者提供一些暗示。

2.看词性,判断其是名词、动词、形容词、副词或其他词类。

3.分析生词的构成,尤其是词的前缀和后缀。英语中很多词都是加前缀和后缀而来的。比

如根据前缀re-和后缀-ity的含义,你就可以准确地猜出rewrite和similarity的意思。

4.看看同一生词是否在上下文的其他地方出现,把两处的语境相比较,也许更能准确地猜

出词义。

5.充分利用你阅读内容中已有的知识。利用文中所附的插图等直观线索猜测词义

⑶认真仔细地阅读文章,掌握文章的中心思想、主要内容以及与之有关的细节。在阅读

中,要善于抓住文章的关键词句,千万不要纠缠文章中的某些细节而影响掌握全文大意。

要紧紧围绕五个“W”(即when,where,what,who,how)或start,process,end总体过程脉络来解决问题,迅速查找需要了解的信息。

。小学英语教学是学生英语学习的启蒙阶段,对学生的终生学习起着重要的作用。如果小

学英语教师能灵活巧妙地渗透、运用英语阅读技巧和策略,帮助小学生有效地学习和阅读

英语故事或短文,将会为他们今后的英语学习奠定良好的基础。

一、精心渗透略读法fskimming)

略读又称跳读,是一种专门的非常实用的快速阅读技能。所谓略读,是指以尽可能快的速

度阅读,这就要求读者有选择地进行阅读,可跳过某些细节,以抓住文章的大概,从而加

快阅读速度。

在小学阶段我们不能一开始就要求学生自己独立阅读故事或短文,因为小学生还没有具备

阅读技巧和能力。一旦遇到生词学生就会觉得阅读困难、学习枯燥无味,从而产生厌学情

绪。因此,在开始阅读训练时,我只要求学生出声把他们能认读的读出来。当你遇到不认

识的单词和不理解的句子时,请学生把它跳过去,只要求读懂大意。例如,在教学阅读补

充材料Big cat 一课时,由于四年级的小学生刚刚接触短文阅读,根据学生的情况,短文中

描述狮子生活习性的简短的三句话,出现的生词比较多,可是在学生读完后,学生仅凭他

们认识的关键词~ther lionsleep~another lion catch 通过略读的方法学生捕捉到信息,这些信

息与他们日常生活知识产生了紧密地联系,所以学生理解说:“我知道了狮子爸爸睡觉,狮

子妈妈出去捕食物。”理解得多好,再读短文的过程中,学生的知识得到了运用,从而使学

生感受到了阅读短文带来了学以致用的乐趣。课后我给每小组发了一篇有关动物话题的小

短文,让他们尝试运用略读法阅读。下节课把每组阅读后了解到的内容讲给大家听。

二、恰当运用寻读法(scanning)

寻读又称查读,同略读一样也是一种快速阅读技巧。与略读不同的是,它带有明确的目的

性,有针对地寻找问题的答案,比如从资料中迅速查找某一项具体事实或某一特定信息,

如人物、事件、时间、地点、数字等。寻读既有速度,又准确。在寻读时阅读者可以把整

段整段的文字直接映人大脑,不必字字句句过目,眼光要自上而下、一目十行地寻找与问

题内容相关的词句,一旦发现有关的内容,就稍做停留,将它记住或摘下,无关的内容则

很快掠过。运用这种方法,阅读者就能在最短的时间内掠过尽可能多的阅读内容,找到所

需要的信息,当回答有关who, when,where等文章细节问题的时候,用此方法一般都可

很快找到答案,可以说“一查即得”。对于小学生来说他们会对这样的阅读感兴趣。

寻读法也是阅读教学中常用的技巧之一。根据这种方法的特点,我们可以为学生在阅读短

文时设计出多种多样训练形式,如是非判断题;结合内容把图和文字搭配起来的训练;把

握信息填写图表等阅读活动。为了完成任务,学生饶有兴致地读了起来。借此时机教师就

可以鼓励学生运用寻读法快速阅读短文或故事。

三、阅读策略还包括养成整体阅读的习惯,用英语思维、猜测词义、预测、分析、判断、

推理、归纳和总结等

阅读策略在我们小学英语教学阶段,教师有必要对学生进行英语阅读策略的指导。教师可

以根据学生的年龄特点,通过练习培养学生的阅读策略,并逐步使学生有目地选择和运用

阅读策略。教学永远是一门遗憾的艺术,小学生的英语阅读能力的培养和提高不是一蹴而

就的。需要教师和学生共同努力才能逐步实现阅读教学的目标。在这一过程中,只要我们

能根据小学生的年龄特点和学习英语的规律,灵活地运用各种阅读教学的策略和技巧,做

到激发学生参与阅读的兴趣,做到注重课内的学习与课外的阅读相结合,学生就会扩大知

识面和提高阅读速度,就会摒弃逐词、逐句的阅读习惯,小学英语的阅读教学才能真正得

到大幅度的提高。

二、阅读理解

2.阅读理解,判断句子正误。

It was National Day last Sunday. And it was also Tom's birthday. He had a party at home. His

friends came and they all give presents to him. They sang and danced. They were very happy. Tom's parents gave him a model ship. After lunch, they went to a park. They played games there.

They went home at 4 o'clock. After dinner, they went to the supermarket. Tom bought (买) a VCD of Japanese cartoons. He was very happy.

(1)Tom's birthday was on National Day.

(2)Tom had a birthday party last Sunday.

(3)They played games at the party.

(4)The model ship was a present from Tom's uncle.

(5)Tom was happy last Sunday.

【答案】(1)1

(2)1

(3)0

(4)0

(5)1

【解析】【分析】这是一篇讲述Tom过生日情况的短文。

(1)题目句子的意思是:汤姆的生日是国庆节。根据短文叙述It was National Day last Sunday. And it was also Tom's birthday.(上周日是国庆节。也是汤姆的生日。)可知题目叙

述正确。故答案为:正确。

(2)题目句子的意思是:上周日汤姆举办了一场生日晚会。根据短文叙述He had a party at home. (他在家办了一场晚会。)可知题目叙述正确。故答案为:正确。

(3)题目句子的意思是:他们在晚会上做游戏。根据短文叙述They sang and danced. (他们唱歌跳舞。)可知没有做游戏。题目叙述错误。故答案为:错误。

(4)题目句子的意思是:船模型是来自汤姆叔叔的礼物。根据短文叙述Tom's parents gave him a model ship. (汤姆的父母给了他一个船模型。)可真是父母的礼物。题目叙述错误,

故答案为:错误。

(5)题目句子的意思是:上周日汤姆很高兴。根据短文叙述He was very happy.(他很高兴。)可知题目叙述正确。故答案为:正确。

【点评】这是考查阅读理解的题目。仔细阅读短文,掌握短文叙述的细节,然后根据短文

叙述来判断正误。

3.阅读理解阅读短文,判断正误。It was Christmas morning. Lynn got up at 7:00. She saw a gift on her bed. It was a box. It had her name on it. She opened it quickly. There were some

toys in it. She thought Santa brought her the toys. She was very happy.

(1)Lynn got up at 6:30.

(2)Lynn's gift was under her bed.

(3)There were some toys in the box.

(4)Lynn thought Santa brought her the toys.

(5)Lynn was very happy.

【答案】(1)0

(2)0

(3)1

(4)1

(5)1

【解析】【分析】该文章主要介绍 Lynn在圣诞节收到礼物的事情。

(1)细节理解,根据Lynn got up at 7:00. 得知她七点起床,故答案为:错误。

(2)细节理解,根据She saw a gift on her bed.得知礼物在床上,故答案为:错误。

(3)细节理解,根据There were some toys in it. 得知盒子里有些玩具,故答案为:正确。

(4)细节理解,根据She thought Santa brought her the toys. 得知她认为圣诞老人给她的礼

物,故答案为:正确。

(5)细节理解,根据She was very happy.得知她很开心,故答案为:正确。

【点评】此题目要求快速阅读文章,把握内容、了解大意,然后细致阅读,抓住主要内容

和细节,标出关键词,然后做出选择,完成题目。

4.阅读理解 A funny old man

My neighbour is an old man.He is seventy—two years old.He lives with his granddaughter Linda.Every morning,he goes for a walk in the park and comes home at half past twelve for

his lunch.

One day a police car stops outside Linda's house at twelve o'clock.Two policemen help Linda's grandfather get out.One of them says to Linda,“He lost(迷失)his way in the park and telephoned us for help.”Linda is very surprised(奇怪).So she asks her grandfather,“You have been to the park every day for twenty years.How did you lose your way?”

The old man smiles and says, "I'm sorry.I’m too tired today.So I don't want to walk home.”

根据内容回答下列问题

(1)Who lives with Linda?

(2)When does the old man have lunch every day?

(3)How does the old man feel that day?

(4)Why does the old man telephone the policeman?

【答案】(1)An old man lives with Linda./ Linda's grandfather lives with her.

(2)He has lunch at half past twelve.

(3)He feels tired.

(4)Because he doesn't want to walk home.

【解析】【分析】该短文讲述的是一个滑稽老头的故事。

(1)推理判断 . 题意:谁和琳达住在一起?根据短文第一段中的语句“My neighbour is an old man.He lives with his granddaughter Linda.”可知一个老头和琳达住在一起或者说琳达

的祖父和她住在一起。故答案为:An old man lives with Linda./ Linda's grandfather lives with her.

(2)细节理解 . 题意:这个老头每天什么时候吃午餐?根据短文第一段中的语句“Every morning,he goes for a walk in the park and comes home at half past twelve for his lunch.”可知他在十二点半吃午餐。故答案为:He has lunch at half past twelve.

(3)细节理解 . 题意:这个老头在那一天感觉怎么样?根据短文末段中的语句“I’m

too tired today.”可知他感觉很累。故答案为:He feels tired.

(4)细节理解 . 题意:这个老头为什么给警察打电话?第二段中的语句“He l ost(迷失)his way in the park and telephoned us for help.”和短文末段中的语句“So I don't want to walk home.”可知这个老头给警察打电话是因为他不想步行回家。故答案为:Because he doesn't want to walk home.

【点评】考查对篇章的把握和细节的辨别能力。答题时要紧扣文章中的关键词,做出正确

回答。

5.阅读理解读短文并根据短文内容填空

Two young trees are standing at the top of a hill.Their names are Tim and Alan.One day,

it's sunny and warm.Some birds are singing in the trees.The wind blows,and the trees are

.“I'm not sure.I think I want talking.“What do you want to be when you grow up?”asks Tim

to be a chair or a desk,”answers Alan,“Maybe I want to be a toy box.I like children.”“What

.“Me?”says Tim,“I just want to be a tree.I

do you want to be when you grow up?”asks Alan

want to be a home for birds.I want to have many apples.And when it's sunny and hot,people

and animals can stand under me.”

(1)Tim and Alan are two .

A. people

B. trees

C. animals

(2)Alan wants to be .

A. a chair

B. a chair or a desk

C. a chair,a desk or a toy box

(3)Tim wants to be when he grows up.

A. a chair

B. a desk

C. a tree

(4)Tim wants to be for birds.

A. fruit

B. a home

C. an apple

(5)People can stand under Tim when it is .

A. sunny and hot

B. windy

C. rainy

【答案】(1)B

(2)C

(3)C

(4)B

(5)A

【解析】【分析】这是一篇描述两棵树的理想的短文.

(1)根据叙述Two young trees are standing at the top of a hill.Their names are Tim and Alan.

可知Tim 和 Alan是两棵树. 故答案为: B.

(2)根据叙述I'm not sure.I think I want to be a chair or a desk,"answers Alan,“Maybe I want to be a toy box.I like children." 可知它想成为椅子或桌子, 或玩具箱. 故答案为: C.

(3)根据叙述“Me?”says Tim,"I just want to be a tree." 可知它想成为一棵树. 故答案为: C.

(4)根据叙述I want to be a home for birds.可知它想成为鸟的家. 故答案为: B.

(5)根据叙述And when it's sunny and hot,people and animals can stand under me.可知是

天气晴朗炎热时, 人们可以乘凉. 故答案为: A.

【点评】这是阅读理解题, 仔细阅读短文, 为各个问题找到相应的叙述, 选出答案.

6.阅读理解读一读,选择正确的答案

(1)How many kinds of food does the Healthy Eating Rainbow have?

A. Three.

B. Six.

C. Seven.

(2)What makes up(构成) the Healthy Eating Rainbow?

A. Vegetables.

B. Sweets.

C. Fruits and vegetables.

(3)What does“attractive”mean?

A. Healthy.

B. Delicious.

C. Lovely.

(4) can take the place of(代替) cherries in the Healthy Eating Rainbow.

A. Tomatoes

B. Meat

C. Strawberry sweets

(5)Why does the writer of the poster make the Healthy Eating Rainbow?

A. To make people eat fewer(更少的) fruits and vegetables.

B. To show that fruits and vegetables are attractive.

C. To show that fruits and vegetables are healthy.

【答案】(1)B

(2)C

(3)B

(4)A

(5)C

【解析】【分析】这是一张介绍吃七彩的食物对健康有益的宣传海报。

(1)句意:健康饮食彩虹有几种食物?根据海报:Cherries,Oranges,Bananas,Broccoli,Blueberries, Grapes等有6种,B选项正确。故答案为:B。

(2)句意:饮食彩虹由什么构成?根据海报句子“Try e ating this colorful rainbow of fruits 可知有水果也有蔬菜。C选项正确。故答案为:C。

and vegetables”

(3)句意:attractive是什么意思?根据第一段叙述这里是讨论糖果和蔬菜的不同。A选项是“健康的”,不合适。疑问糖果不是健康食品;lovely“可爱的”,意思不合适。只有美味的”适合句意。故答案为:B。

delicious“

(4)句意:......可以替代饮食彩虹里的樱桃。A选项是:西红柿;B选项是:肉;C选项是:草莓糖。这里替代水果“樱桃”,用颜色相同,同样健康的西红柿合适。故答案为:

A。

(5)句意:为什么海报作者制作健康饮食彩虹?根据海报题目“Eating the Rainbow ! You (吃这个彩虹。你也可以健康。)可知为了强调水果和蔬菜的健康特

Can Be Healthy Too. ”

性。C选项正确。故答案为:C。

【点评】这是考查阅读理解的题目。仔细阅读海报,注意内容和图片,然后选择合适的选

项回答问题。

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